Circular Knitting Machines

January 8, 2008

Circular Knitting Machines
In its 85th year of continuous operation, Vanguard Supreme is the leader in circular knitting
technology. Custom designed machines unsurpassed in quality. Proven to be productive and
profitable for the production of underwear, T shirts, fleece wear, sportswear, casual wear, industrial
fabrics, medical fabrics, and packaging fabrics.
From its founding in 1918 as the Supreme Knitting Machine Company, to its acquisition by the
Singer Company in 1961, its return to private ownership in 1978 as Vanguard Supreme and in 1986
as part of Monarch Knitting Machinery Corporation, one objective has never changed, that is the
Commitment to Excellence.
The long history of Vanguard Supreme is testimony to a continuity of commitment to Total
Customer Satisfaction. It also is a testimony to its Employees, whose determination and work ethics
have made the name Vanguard Supreme synonymous with Excellence in manufacturing and Service
to our customers.
The construction of Vanguard Supreme knitting machines embody the most Advanced Features and
Engineering Techniques obtainable in modern knitting equipment. Today, Vanguard Supreme knitting
machines are in use the world over. Innumerable types of circular knit fabrics have been produced
profitably on Vanguard Supreme machines. We are proud of the Performance Record our machines
have compiled in knitting mills throughout the world and are Pledged to Maintain this High Standard.
4SJ4/HAC Knitting Elements with 4 tracks of cams.
4SFT/4V Knitting Elements
4SJ4/HACI2 Jumbo Machine
High Speed Single Knit Machines
The high speed, high production jersey and fleece machines are ideal for producing the finest
quality single knit fabrics. The computer designed closed cam track system ensures positive needle
control and provides superb stitch definition. The jersey machine is equipped with angular sinker
technology to improve fabric quality and lower the defect rate, even at the highest speeds. The
fleece machine is equipped with a 3 level sinker (U.S. Patent 5,477,707  Foreign Patents Pending)
for improved knitting.
Jersey Fabric Scope
 Plain single jersey fabrics ideal for sportswear, leisure wear, underwear, and T shirts
 Feeder stripes, plaited fabrics, 2−yarn fleece, satin stitch, lacoste, crepe, and twills
Fleece Fabric Scope
 3−yarn tie in fleece ideal for sportswear and leisure wear
 1 x 1, 2 x 1, and 3 x 1 needle selection
 Diagonal, crossover, random patterns or french terry
Machine Specifications
Diameter . . . . . . . . 11″ to 36″
Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jersey: 16 to 28 npi
Fleece: 12 to 22 npi
Feeds . . . . . . . . . . . Jersey: 4 per inch
Fleece: 3.5 per inch
Speed Factor . . . . . Jersey: Up to 1500 depending on yarn quality and fabric type (single track only)
Fleece: Up to 1000 depending on yarn quality and fabric type
Cam Track . . . . . . . 4 available
2SR2/V Knitting Elements with 1 track of cams.
2SI3/V Knitting Elements
2SR2/HI2 Jumbo Machine
High Speed Double Knit Machines
The high speed, high production rib and interlock machines are ideal for producing the finest
quality fabrics. The computer designed closed cam track system ensures positive needle control
and superb stitch definition. The rib is equipped with a 2 piece, fully tracked cylinder cam (U.S.
Patent 5,182,927  Foreign Patents Pending) allowing for adjustment of the stitch draw without
losing the yarn feeding position of the needle. This unique cam design offers the close tolerances
of a monoblock cam, while allowing for separate stitch adjustment. The rib machine is easily
converted to produce interlock and eightlock fabrics.
Rib Fabric Scope
 1 x 1, 2 x 1 and 2 x 2 rib fabrics ideal for underwear, collars, cuffs, and trim
 Morgan thermal and raschel thermal (2 track)
 Elastomeric plaited fabrics
Interlock Fabric Scope
 Interlock fabric ideal for ladies wear and mens wear
 Feeder stripes, printed fabrics, and leisure wear
Machine Specifications
Diameter . . . . . . . . 15″ to 30″ (rib also available in 11″ to 14″)
Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rib: 10 to 18 npi
Interlock: 18 to 28 npi
Feeds . . . . . . . . . . . Rib: 2 per inch
Interlock: 3 per inch
Speed Factor . . . . . Rib: Up to 1500 depending on yarn quality and fabric type
Interlock: Up to 1200 depending on yarn quality and fabric type
Cam Track . . . . . . . 2 available (1 track on 11″ to 14″)
The high production, small diameter jersey
and rib machines are ideal for producing the
finest quality fabrics used in the apparel,
industrial, medical, and packaging industries.
Jersey Fabric Scope
 Plain single jersey fabrics
 Pique, satin stitch, lacoste, crepe,
twills, 2 yarn fleece, plaited fabrics,
and small jacquard
Rib Fabric Scope
 1 x 1, 2 x1, and 2 x 2 rib fabrics
 Elastomeric plaited fabrics
Machine Specifications
Diameter . . . . . Jersey: 4″ to 10″
Rib: 5″ to 10″
Cut . . . . . . . . . . Jersey: 16 to 28 npi
Rib: 4 to 12 npi
Feeds . . . . . . . . Jersey: 4 per inch
Rib: 1.5 per inch
(5″ and 6″) or 2 per inch
(7″ to 10″)
Speed Factor . . Up to 1000 depending
on yarn quality and
fabric type
Cam Track . . . . Jersey: 4 available
Rib: 1 available
4SJ4/SI Single Knit Machine and Knitting Elements
1SR1.5/SI Double Knit Machine and Knitting Elements
Small Diameter High Speed Machines
Standard Machine Features
 Information Display Computer  MPF yarn feeding system
 AC motor  Automatic oiling of knitting elements
 AC inverter variable speed drive  3 roller, positive drive takeup
Optional Machine Features
 3 roller, positive center roll takeup (not available on jumbo frame)
 Side standing creel
 Top fan system
 Uniwave flutter blower
 Industrial frame with 35 inch roll capacity (not available on 4″ to 10″ machines)
 Jumbo frame with 45 inch roll capacity (not available on 4″ to 10″ machines)
 Filter Flow 2000 lint cleaning system (U.S. Patent 5,737,942  Foreign Patents Pending)
 Lycra Kit
 Yarn ravel measuring system
 Fabric defect scanner
Information Display Computer
The Information Display Computer electronically controls all functions of the machine. It provides the
operator with machine setup data, machine fault data, and machine production data. It is
programmable and can be set up to meet the specific needs of each customer.
Information Display Computer features:
 Predetermining Counter (Doff)
 4−Shift Totalizing Counter
(Password Protected for Resetting)
 Inspection Counter (Predoff)
 Reset (Gate Safety)
 Stop Motion Override Delay
(Bottom Stop Motions, Adjustable)
 Automatic delay
(Top Stop Motions, Adjustable)
 RPM and Speed Factor
 Machine Efficiency
 Automatic Oil Flushing and
Air Blowing
 Manual Oil Flush
 High and Low Speeds
 Fabric Light
 Machine Fault Indication
Filter Flow 2000
(U.S. Patent Number 5,737,942  Foreign Patents Pending)
An air flow system that markedly improves machine operating and maintenance cost by preventing
accumulation of lint and debris in the needles and sinker sections. It lowers machine temperatures
and improves needle life. When using open end yarns, the improvement can be dramatic. The Filter
Flow 2000 ends the need to flush the machine, preventing oil spots, oil lines and graphite lines,
eliminating all associated fabric waste.
Features
 3/4 horse power motor
 Temperature monitor with overtemperature stopmotion
 Filter cleaning monitor with dirty filter stopmotion
 Replaceable 12″ x 20″ x 2″ filter
 Removable air chamber covers for easy access to cylinder knitting elements
 Digital status/stopmotion readout using machine’s information display computer
 Integrated design fits seamlessly on machine
Additional designs available for Monarch and all other brands of Knitting Machines.
A DIVISION OF MONARCH KNITTING MACHINERY CORP.
Main Office and Manufacturing
601 MacArthur Circle
P.O. Box 5009
Monroe, NC 28111−5009 U.S.A.
Phone: (704) 283−8171
Toll Free: (800) 222−1971
Fax: (704) 283−9257
Florida Office
260 Lock Road
Deerfield Beach, FL
33054 U.S.A.
Phone: (954) 418−6333
Fax: (954) 418−3344
Canadian Office
4160 Boulevard Thimens
St. Laurent, Quebec
Canada H4R 2B9
Phone: (514) 331−0425
Fax: (514) 337−1997
1003  Vanguard Supreme
All information in this brochure is given in good faith but without warranty.
Visit our website at http://www.vanguardsupreme.com

LET’S LEARN TO KNIT WITH PICK UP STITCH

January 2, 2008

U N I V E R S I T Y O F K E N T U C K Y — C O L L E G E O F A G R I C U L T U R E
C O O P E R A T I V E E X T E N S I O N S E R V I C E
Agriculture & Natural Resources • Family & Consumer Sciences • 4-H/Youth Development • Community & Economic Development
4JE-04PO
Unit 4
Let’s Learn to Knit
with Pickup Stitches
Linda Heaton, Clothing and Textiles Specialist
18 U. S. C. 707
Special appreciation is extended to the 4-H Knitting Development Committee, which inspired this project and worked long
hours to make it a reality. Many thanks to:
Thelma Smith—Shelby County Leader
Marie Riggs—Fayette County Leader
Katherine Hixson—Harrison County Leader
Jane Bailey—Former Shelby County Extension Agent for Home Economics
Karen Hill—Former 4-H Extension Program Specialist
Many of the illustrations in the 4-H knitting project series are courtesy of the Educational Bureau, Coats and Clark, Inc.
Mention or display of a trademark, proprietary product, or firm in text or figures does not constitute an endorsement and
does not imply approval to the exclusion of other suitable products or firms.
Your Guide for the Project …………………..3
You Will Learn …………………………………………..3
What You Will Knit ……………………………………3
Exhibit Your Work ……………………………………..4
Add to Your Record Book ………………………….4
Knitting Notebook ……………………………………4
Demonstrate to Your Club ……………………….4
Plan Your Project ……………………………….4
Knitting Tools ……………………………………4
Knitting Tips ……………………………………..5
How to Measure Your Work ……………………..5
Using Needles……………………………………………5
Check Gauge …………………………………………….6
Additional Hints ……………………………………….6
Selecting Pattern Size, Yarn,
and Ribbon ……………………………………6
Correct Pattern Size ………………………………….6
Knitting to Fit ……………………………………………7
Yarn……………………………………………………………8
Grosgrain Ribbon ……………………………………..8
Knitting Skills ……………………………………8
Blind Increase Slanting to the Right ………..8
Blind Increase Slanting to the Left …………..8
Contents
Picking up Stitches ……………………………………9
Casting on Stitches …………………………………..9
Making a Buttonhole for Cardigans …….. 10
Buttons …………………………………………..10
Sewing On Buttons ……………………………….. 10
Set-in Sleeves ………………………………….10
Seams …………………………………………….11
Woven Seam …………………………………………. 11
Crocheted Seam ……………………………………. 11
Finishing Your Sweater……………………..12
Blocking by Steam ………………………………… 12
Duplicate Stitch ……………………………….12
Care of Sweaters………………………………13
Suggested Patterns ………………………….13
Smock Sweater for Women ……………….14
Smock Sweater for Men ……………………15
Raglan Cardigan ……………………………..16
Show Others What You Have Learned ..19
Exhibits ………………………………………………….. 19
Demonstrations ……………………………………. 19
Knitting Notebook……………………………20
Scoring My Knitting ………………………….21
Knitting Record………………………………..22
3
Your Guide
for the Project
Let’s Learn to Knit with Pickup Stitches is designed
for 4-Hers who have learned basic knitting
skills. You are now ready to add to your knitting
skills as you knit an article with pickup stitches.
You Will Learn
• To select pattern size, yarn, and ribbon.
• To knit to fit.
• To pick up stitches.
• To increase stitches.
• To make a knitted buttonhole.
• To make a woven seam.
• To make a crocheted seam.
• To block a wool sweater.
What You Will Knit
In this project you will use circular needles to
make an article with pickup stitches. Your article
should be of one color with no knitted design. You
may use a duplicate stitch to embroider a design on
your article. Either pattern in this project book is
appropriate. However, your leader may suggest
additional patterns.
Unit 4
Let’s Learn to Knit
with Pickup Stitches
Linda Heaton, Clothing and Textiles Specialist
4
Exhibit Your Work
Your article with pickup stitches may be exhibited
at local 4-H events. A score sheet appropriate
for your article is included in the back of this book.
Add to Your Record Book
A knitting record sheet is included in this project.
After you complete the record and your 4-H story
for this year, put them with last year’s records. Keep
your records up-to-date each year. You may record
the articles you make in addition to the article
required in this project.
Also keep a record of the activities in which you
participate (such as tours, exhibits, demonstrations,
or camps) for your permanent record.
Knitting Notebook
Every knitter needs a notebook or file in which to
keep useful information. Ask your parents or leader
for a loose-leaf notebook for your use. Use the form
at the back of this book and keep samples of your
knitting.
Demonstrate
to Your Club
Give a demonstration at one of your club meetings.
Show others what you have learned. Demonstrating
helps you in your project work while it gives you
poise and practice in the art of public speaking.
Plan Your Project
Study the guide for this project with a parent or
leader. He or she can help you think about the
clothes you have in your wardrobe and those you
are planning to purchase. These are important
factors in choosing the color for a sweater.
When you shop for yarn, remember to purchase
all of the yarn you will need to complete your
article because colors vary between dye lots. It is
much better to have a little yarn left over than to run
out in the middle of your project.
Knitting Tools
Check your tools before you start to knit. To knit
a sweater you will need the same tools you used in
previous projects, plus markers, stitch holders, and
circular needles.
Markers—Markers are used as guides in knitting.
They may be placed in your work to mark future
measurements or placed on your needle between
two stitches and slipped from one needle to the
other.
Horizontal Markers—When directions call for
a marker to be placed in the work, use a small
length of yarn of a contrasting color; work this yarn
along with the regular yarn for 3 or 4 stitches.
Leave this marker in your work until it is completed
(Figure 1).
Vertical Markers—Ring markers made of
plastic or metal are available at most stores. These
markers are placed on your needles between
stitches when the pattern directions read “sl a
marker on needle” or “place marker on needle”
(Figure 2).
5
Stitch Holder—A stitch holder is a large plastic or
metal “safety pin” that is used to hold specific
stitches while a pattern is being worked around
them. These stitches are slipped from the needles
onto the holder. Later the stitches are returned to the
needles and worked according to the directions. For
example, the stitch holder is used to hold sleeve
stitches while the body of the sweater is being
knitted (Figure 3).
Circular Needles—Circular needles are used for
knitting in a complete circle to avoid seams; however,
they may be used for knitting back and forth
in flat knitting, too. For example, they may be used
to knit sleeves, ribbing, collars, or sweaters without
seams.
Circular needles are single-pointed, rigid needles
connected by a thin, flexible cable (Figure 4). They
are available in a variety of lengths and sizes. Select
the needle size according to the pattern directions
and gauge required for the sweater. Select the
needle length according to the number of stitches to
be held on the needle and your personal preference.
Wide projects, such as sweaters, require long
needles.
Knitting Tips
As you continue to knit, you will want to increase
your skill in knitting. Here are a few tips to
help you.
How to Measure
Your Work
Often the directions will tell you to work so
many inches and then do a certain step, so it is
necessary to measure your work. To do this, lay
your work down on a flat surface with the needle at
your left. Use a tape measure or ruler with its end
placed just under the needle and measure down to
the starting point, or to the point indicated in the
directions (Figure 5).
Do not stretch your knitting. Simply smooth your
work out as it naturally would lie. Don’t cheat
yourself by trying to make your work measure more
than it really does. You might have to rip it out and
do it over again.
Using Needles
When beginning a large project like a sweater,
read the pattern directions carefully before beginning.
The pattern may direct you to cast on stitches
and complete the ribbing on straight needles and
then change to circular needles. Do you have
straight needles of the correct size?
6
Check Gauge
Knitting patterns will specify gauge. The gauge
should always be checked by making a sample
square using the same yarn and needle size as given
in the instructions.
To check gauge, put two pins exactly 1 inch apart
(2.5 cm) and count the stitches between. If 1 inch
has fewer stitches than the directions call for, you
need to use a smaller needle. If it has more stitches,
you need to use a larger needle (Figure 6). The
needle sizes given in the knitting instructions are
only suggested sizes. Use any needle size that will
produce the correct gauge.
Additional Hints
• Keep a tape measure in your knitting bag to measure
length or gauge as you go along.
• When you have to make many rows of the same
stitch, mark down each row on a piece of paper
as you work it—then you won’t have to keep
counting rows!
• Always keep a pencil in your knitting bag to
check off pattern directions, line by line, so
you’ll always know where you are. It eliminates
chances for error as you stop and start.
Selecting Pattern
Size, Yarn, and
Ribbon
Correct Pattern Size
The joy of wearing a hand-knitted sweater depends
on the care you use in selecting the correct
pattern size for your figure. Most knitting patterns
have directions for knitting several sizes. To choose
the best size for you, compare your body measurements
to those listed on the pattern. Depending on
the pattern, you will want to measure your body at
the following points:
Your Measurements
inches cm
Chest ____ ____
Width across back at underarm ____ ____
Length from back of neck to
bottom edge of sweater ____ ____
Length from underarm to
bottom edge of sweater ____ ____
Length of sleeve at underarm ____ ____
Width of sleeve at upper arm ____ ____
When you compare your body measurements to
the pattern measurements (finished knitted measurements
should be slightly larger than your body
measurements), ask your leader for help in deciding
which pattern size is best for you.
Before you start to knit, go through the directions
and circle the numbers for your size. Then you will
not accidentally work the wrong number of stitches
as you knit.
7
Knitting to Fit
Knitting is different from sewing in that you
produce the fabric and shape the garment to fit your
measurements as you knit, whereas in sewing you
begin by cutting the fabric according to the pattern
shapes. For this reason, it is important to calculate
the fit of a knitted garment before you begin knitting
it. After you have spent hours knitting something,
it is very disappointing not to be able to wear
it because it doesn’t fit you well.
The most important thing to know is the stitch
gauge given in the pattern instructions. Then be
sure you knit to that gauge.
Check your body measurements against the
measurements given for the various sizes. Pattern
sizes for knitted sweaters differ from ready-to-wear
sweater sizes. Your commercial book of knitting
patterns will have a size chart with garment measurements;
at the beginning of the instructions for
each garment, the size range will be given. Ease
must be allowed for a comfortable fit, so remember
that in addition to your actual body measurements,
you need to add ease allowance. For example, it is
desirable to have 3 to 4 inches of ease around the
bustline whether or not a sweater (or any other
knitted garment) is designed to fit snugly. Your
body measurement at bustline—for example, 32
inches—plus 4 inches for ease equals 36 inches.
Pattern gauge given is 7 stitches per inch. Multiply
36 inches by 7, for a total of 252 stitches needed.
Check the pattern instructions to find out the
total number of stitches there will be at the widest
part of the sweater (bustline). Remember to include
the number of stitches added (if you increased) to
the number cast on. Compare the total number of
stitches on the needles to the number required (252)
to determine whether the sweater will fit. If in the
size you selected there are not enough or there are too
many stitches to give you the correct fit, change to
the garment size that you need for a comfortable fit.
Corrections for length are made by knitting more
or fewer rows than called for. The length of sleeves
from underarm to lower edge should be checked
against your arm length. Also compare with your
measurements the length of a sweater from underarm
to lower edge, and skirt length from waistline
to lower edge. Remember: it is essential that you knit
to the proper gauge in order to get the correct fit.
8
Yarn
After you choose
your pattern size, you
can buy the right
amount of yarn.
Always buy the
specified amount
with the same dye lot
number. Also select
the type of yarn
specified in the
pattern directions (for
example, 4-ply
knitting worsted).
The wrapper on each
skein of yarn tells
you what you need to
know: fiber content, ply, dye lot number, weight,
care recommendations, plus information on whether
the yarn is colorfast, mothproof, and preshrunk
(Figure 7).
Grosgrain Ribbon
Almost all sweaters with buttonholes need
grosgrain ribbon to reinforce the bands with buttons
and buttonholes. When you purchase yarn, select
ribbon, 1 inch (2.5 cm) to 2 inches (5 cm) wide, that
closely matches the yarn color. You may not be able
to find an exact color match. Purchase ribbon the
length of each side of the center front opening plus
an additional 3 or 4 inches. You need extra ribbon
to turn under the raw edges and to allow for shrinkage.
Your leader will help you determine the color
and amount needed.
After purchasing the grosgrain ribbon, preshrink
it so that it will be ready to use when you need it.
To preshrink the ribbon, wash it in hot water and
then dry it.
Knitting Skills
The increase stitch you have learned is the one
you will use when your increase is on the edge of
your garment or forms a part of the design of a
garment. There are times when you do not want the
increase to show, so let’s learn to do a “blind”
increase.
Just as in decreasing, increasing may be made to
slant either to the left or to the right.
Blind Increase
Slanting to the Right
Work across the row to the point where the
increase is to be made. Before working the increase,
turn the work on the left-hand needle slightly
toward you so that you can see the back of the work
over the top of the needle. Make your increase by
inserting the right-hand needle, from the top down,
into the back of the stitch below the stitch on the
left-hand needle and knit this loop as a stitch. Now
return the left-hand needle to the proper position
and knit the stitch on the needle (this is the stitch
above the stitch the increase was worked in) in the
usual way (Figure 8).
Blind Increase
Slanting to the Left
Work across the row to the point where the
increase is to be made. With the left-hand needle,
from back to front of the work, pick up the stitch
right below the stitch just made on the right-hand
needle. This puts an extra stitch on the left-hand
9
needle; knit into the back of this added stitch for
your increase stitch (Figure 9).
Picking up Stitches
Stitches are most frequently picked up along an
edge of a piece already knitted, such as the neck
and armhole edges of a sweater.
To pick up stitches, hold the work with the right
side toward you. Hold the free end of a skein of
yarn against the garment with your left hand until
you get started. This loose end is afterwards fastened
into the work and concealed.
Hold the needle and yarn in your right hand in
the regular way. Work from right to left. Insert the
needle into the first row in from the edge and knit
stitches onto the right-hand needle (Figure 10). The
directions will specify a number of stitches to be
picked up. Make them fit into the space allotted.
When picking up the irregular edge formed by
increases or decreases, be sure to insert your needle
into every row, whether the knitting is tight or
loose.
When picking up stitches at the armhole, work
from front to back on the left armhole and from
back to front on the right armhole.
Casting on Stitches
In this project you will learn another method of
casting on stitches. When you are casting on
stitches in the middle of a garment, two threads are
not available, and it is necessary to use a method
known as knitting on. When the directions tell you
to cast on while you are making a garment, you
must first turn your work. The right-hand needle
becomes the left-hand needle and vice versa. The
needle to which the yarn is attached is in your left
hand. Insert the needle now in your right hand into
the stitch nearest the top of the left-hand needle
(Figure 11).
When a new stitch is drawn out (Figure 12), do
not pull the old stitch off the left needle. Instead,
transfer the new stitch on the right-hand needle onto
the left-hand needle (Figure 13).
Make the next stitch in the stitch just completed.
This process is continued until the required number
of stitches has been cast on. Then the work is
turned again and the regular knitting is resumed.
10
Making a Buttonhole
for Cardigans
Buttonholes are made on the left band for boys
and on the right band for girls. To make a buttonhole,
knit to the position for a buttonhole as specified
in the directions. Bind off three (or the number
called for) stitches and knit to the end of the row.
Work the next row in the pattern as far as the
bound-off stitches. Turn your work and cast on as
many stitches as were bound off in the previous row
(Figure 14).
Complete the row. The finished buttonhole
should look like the one in Figure 15.
The knitted buttonholes should be backed with
preshrunk grosgrain ribbon. Using a sewing needle
and thread that matches the color of your yarn, slip
stitch the ribbon to the center front openings. Turn
under the raw edges of the ribbon at the neck and
bottom edges. Slip stitch these edges, also.
Work the buttonholes through the knitted buttonhole
and grosgrain ribbon with the buttonhole
stitch. Use matching yarn or thread. Be careful not
to pull the stitches too tightly.
Buttons
Select buttons or make your buttons to complete
your sweater. The pattern will recommend the
correct size for your sweater. Be sure to purchase a
button with a shank.
Sewing On Buttons
When you sew the buttons on your sweater, plan
on using a thread shank. The shank allows the
button to rest on top of the buttonhole instead of
crowding to the inside and distorting the buttonhole.
One way to sew a thread shank is illustrated
below, but your leader may recommend other ways
(Figure 16).
To make a thread shank, secure the thread at the
button mark, then bring the needle up through one
hole in the button. Lay a pin, toothpick, or
matchstick across the top of the button.
Sew through the holes in the button several
times. Remove the pin or stick and lift the button
away from the sweater so the stitches are tight.
Wind thread firmly around the stitches to make the
shank. Backstitch into the shank to secure it.
Set-in Sleeves
It takes a great deal of care and patience to set a
sleeve into the body of a sweater so that it fits
properly and looks neat. To set sleeves into a
sweater, follow these steps carefully.
Place the sleeve into the armseye (armhole) of
the sweater with right sides together.
11
With the sleeve side facing you, use straight pins
to pin the sleeve in the armseye, matching underarm
seams and center top of the sleeve with the shoulder
seam. With the sleeve side still facing you, pin from
the underarm seam, easing in any fullness 2 inches
on each side of the top of the sleeve.
Turn the work. With the body side of the sweater
facing you, attach the yarn and with a crochet hook
work the seam in a slip stitch (see directions for
crocheted seam) or with a backstitch seam. If you
follow the rows of knitting as a guide, your seam
should be smooth, straight, and even.
Seams
In previous projects, directions were given for
joining knitted garments with a flat overcast seam
and a backstitch seam. In this unit you will find two
additional ways of joining seams.
Woven Seam
Place the two pieces to be joined with edges
together evenly, right side up.
If you have a thread on either piece of your
garment long enough to sew your seam, use it;
otherwise, thread a piece of the same yarn you used
in your garment into your tapestry needle and attach
the yarn with a slip knot to the wrong side of the
piece on the right. Leave about 2 inches of yarn on
the end of the knot. Do not cut the yarn close to the
knot since the knot may come untied (Figure 17).
Insert your needle into the back side of the first
stitch on the right-hand side and bring the needle up
to the right side of work through the first stitch on
the left edge (Figure 18).
Insert the needle down through the center of the
first stitch on the right edge, pass under two rows,
and draw the yarn through to the right side (Figure 18).
Insert the needle in the center of the stitch on the
corresponding row of the left edge, pass under two
rows as before, and draw the yarn through to the
right side. Continue to work in this manner from
side to side, matching rows (Figure 19).
Be careful not to pull the yarn too tightly as the
seam must have elasticity.
Crocheted Seam
Use the same yarn used to knit the garment and a
crochet hook large enough not to split the yarn, yet
small enough to go through the stitches easily. If
using 4-ply yarn, you may “split it” and use only 2-
ply for the seam.
In your left hand hold the two pieces to be joined
with right sides together, wrong side out.
12
Attach the yarn on the bottom piece; with the
crochet hook pull the yarn through to the top side
with a slip loop.
Insert the hook through the first stitch of top
piece (one stitch in from the edge) and then through
the corresponding stitch in the other piece. In other
words, work into corresponding rows of knitting on
either side. Catch the yarn with the hook and draw
it through the slip loop on the hook. Do the same
thing in the next row of knitting and repeat this
procedure along the entire seam (Figure 20).
This method of crocheting a seam gives slightly
more elasticity and strength than a sewn seam.
Finishing
Your Sweater
When all parts of your sweater have been knitted,
you can add the finishing touches to complete your
sweater. Read the label on the skein of yarn to see if
blocking is necessary. If you used wool yarn, follow
these instructions.
Blocking by Steam
Place your garment on a flat, padded surface with
the right sides of the garment together. Pin the
edges to the measurements given in the directions;
use rust-proof pins, about ¼ inch apart.
Note: If your garment is made in separate pieces,
such as the back, front, and sleeves, two identical
pieces should be blocked at the same time.
Place a damp cloth over the pieces already
pinned; then steam with a hot iron held just barely
above the damp cloth.
Leave the garment pinned until thoroughly dry.
Remove the pins and sew up the seams by the
desired method.
Steam seams on the wrong side.
Note: It is best never to block the ribbing of a
garment. If your sweater is made of synthetic yarn,
follow the washing directions recommended on the
yarn label.
Duplicate Stitch
The duplicate stitch is a simple way to add color
and pattern to a plain piece of knitting. After the
knitting has been completed, thread a tapestry or
yarn needle with yarn of another color and duplicate
the knitted stitches by embroidering over them
(Figure 21). Keep the yarn loose enough to lie on
top of work and cover the knitted stitch. To monogram
your sweater, use the following graph for a
guide (Figure 22).
13
Care of Sweaters
Save the skein band from the yarn used in the
project to find the care instructions. Follow the
information specified by the manufacturer. For best
results, do not allow a knitted sweater to become
excessively soiled.
Caring for your sweater after each wearing will
keep it looking like new and make it wear longer.
After each wearing, let your sweater “air” overnight,
or at least for a few hours. Then fold it neatly
and store it in a drawer, chest, or box. Sweaters
should not be hung on a hanger because hanging
causes them to pull out of shape.
Sweaters very often acquire little “fuzz balls”
either from wear or washing. You can purchase a
fuzz remover from your dry cleaner or clothing
store. A brush, fine sandpaper, or emery board may
also be used.
Whether you use a fuzz remover or a brush to
remove fuzz balls from your sweaters, brush very
lightly since too much pressure will harm the fibers.
Suggested Patterns
Many patterns are available that meet the criteria
for this project. Your leader may suggest a pattern
for you to use. However, the patterns included are
appropriate.
14
Smock Sweater
for Women
Sizes: Directions are given for size 6-8; changes for
sizes 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 are given in brackets.
A loose-fitting T-shirt is good to use for checking
measurements. The sweater measures 16″ (40 cm)
[18"-20"-22"] across the back at the underarm.
Since the garment is the same width at the lower
edge as at the underarm, the width measurement
can be checked after knitting an inch or two. Length
of the finished sweater is 24″ [26"-28"-30"] from
the back of the neck to the lower edge.
Materials: 5 [6-6-7] skeins (3½ oz.) of 4-ply knitting
yarn, a No. 9 circular needle or the size that will
give you the correct gauge, 3 buttons 1″ in diameter.
Gauge: In garter stitch 7 sts = 2 inches; 7 rows = 1 inch.
Back: Starting at the lower edge, cast on 62 [70-78-
86] sts. Work in garter st (this means to knit every
row) until the piece measures 15″ [16"-17"-18"] or
the desired length to the underarm. Mark the beg
and end of the row for underarms. This can be done
by inserting safety pins in the row horizontally. These
markers are very important as they help establish
armholes when inserting the gussets. Work in garter
st for 1″ more.
To establish ribbed yoke: 1st row: (right side) K 2,
*p 2, k 2. Repeat from * across. 2nd row: P 2,
*k 2, p 2. Repeat from hole measures (from safety pin)
8″ [81/2"-9"-91/2"] in length. Bind off in ribbed pattern.
Front: Work back until the piece measures 14″
[15"-16"-17"]. Note: This is 1″ less than the desired
length of the underarm.
To divide for neck opening: Next row: (right side)
K 28 [32-36-40] sts. Place the remaining 34 [38-42-
46] sts on a st holder for the right front. Cast 7 sts
onto the right-hand needle. This completes the left
band. There should be 35 [39-43-47] sts on the
needle.
Left front: 1st row: (wrong side) K 1, p 6 (sts for
band); place a marker on needle, k across.
2nd row: K across, slipping marker. Repeat these
2 rows, slipping marker on each row, until the piece
measures the same as back to the ribbed yoke. End at
the side edge. Be sure to mark the armhole. This marker
or pin should correspond with the back markers.
To establish ribbed yoke: 1st row: (right side) *K
2, p 2. Repeat from * to the marker on the needle, sl
marker, k 7. 2nd row: K 1, p 6, slip marker, *k 2, p
2. Repeat from * across. These 2 rows should have
established the rib pattern for the yoke and the 7-st
band at center front. Repeat the last 2 rows until the
armhole measures 7″ [71/2"-8"-81/2"] ending at the
front edge. Note: This is 1″ short of the back shoulder
length.
Smock sweater for women
15
To shape neck: Working in the pattern as established,
bind off the 7 sts of the band at the beg of
the next row (take off marker). Then bind off 4
[5-6-7] sts at the neck edge only every other row
twice. Work even in the pattern on the remaining 20
[22-24-26] sts until the armhole measures the same
as the back. Bind off in the pattern. Evenly space 3
safety pins on the completed left band to indicate
where buttons are to be placed.
Right front: With the right side facing you, place
sts from the holder onto your left-hand needle. 1st
row: (right side) In the 1st st work p 1 and k 1
(this is an inc), k 5 sts. This completes the 7-st
band. Place a marker on the needle. K across the 28
[32-36-40] remaining sts. 2nd row: K across to the
marker, sl marker, p 6, k 1. 3rd row: K across,
slipping marker. Repeat the 2nd and 3rd rows until
the piece measures the same as back to the ribbed
pattern, ending at the front edge.
Buttonholes: In the rows opposite the pins, make a
buttonhole as follows—1st row: (wrong side) Work
to band sts, p 2, bind off 3 sts, p 1, k 1. 2nd row: K
2, cast on 3 sts over bound-off sts. Complete the
row in the established pattern.
To establish ribbed yoke: Continuing to work the
buttonholes opposite the pins, work as follows: 1st
row: (right side) Work band, *p 2, k 2. Repeat from
* across. 2nd row: *P 2, k 2. Repeat from * to the
marker; work band. Complete to correspond to the
left front. Reverse the neck shaping.
Sleeves: Starting at the lower edge, cast on 32 sts.
Work in k 2, p 2, ribbing for 21/2″, increasing 6
[8-10-12] sts evenly spaced in the last row. Work in
garter st on 38 [40-42-44] sts until the sleeve
measures 151/2″ [161/2"-161/2"-161/2"] or desired
length to underarm. Mark beginning and end of the
row for the underarm as you did on the back and
front of the garment. Work in garter st for 3″ more.
Bind off.
Gussets: (make 2) Cast on 12 sts. Work even in
garter sts for 3″ (pieces should be square). Bind off.
Collar: Sew the shoulder seams. With the right side
of the sweater facing you, skip the first 6 sts of the
band and beginning with 7th st, pick up 12 [13-14-
15] sts evenly on the right neck front, 26 [28-30-32]
sts across the back neck, and 12 [13-14-15] sts on
the left neck front. Be sure the last st picked up is in
the edge of the left band, corresponding with the 1st
st taken in the right band. There should be 50 [54-
58-62] sts on the circular needle. 1st row: Sl 1st st,
k across row. Repeat this row (garter st) until the
collar measures 4″ from the neck edge. End on the
wrong side. Bind off.
Finishing: Sew the sleeves to the yoke, centering
them at the shoulder seam. Sew the sleeve up to the
markers. Sew the side seams to the markers, leaving
51/2″ open at the lower edge for side slits. Sew each
gusset in the square opening at the underarm. Be
sure the garter st rows run vertically at the front
(this makes them in line and running the same way
as the sleeve rows). They will run horizontally at
the back. Sew the lower edge of the front band
together so that the right band overlaps the left. Sew
buttons on the left band. The sweater will look nicer
if grosgrain ribbon is used to face the bands and the
buttonholes are worked through the ribbon. You
will need 1/2 yard of 11/2″ ribbon for this.
Smock Sweater
for Men
Follow directions for Smock Sweater for Women to
“To divide for neck opening.”
Next row: (right side) K 34 [38-42-46] sts and put
on the st holder for the left front. There should now
be 35 [39-43-47] sts on the needle. 1st row: K 7,
place a marker on the needle, k to end of the row.
2nd row: K to the marker, sl marker, p 6, k 1.
3rd row: K 7, sl marker, k to the end of the row.
Repeat rows 2 and 3, slipping marker on each row
until the piece measures the same as back to the ribbed
yoke. End at the neck edge. Mark the armhole.
To establish rib yoke: 1st row: (right side) K 7, sl
marker *p 2, k 2, repeat from * to the end of the
row. 2nd row: *P 2, k 2, repeat from * to the
marker, sl marker, p 6, k 1. These two rows should
establish the rib yoke and 7-st neck band. They
should also correspond with the back (have k-2 rib
16
at the arm edge on the right side). Repeat these 2
rows until the armhole measures 7″ [71/2"-8"-81/2"].
Follow the directions for neck shaping, including
the placing of pins for buttons.
Left front: With the wrong side facing you, place
the sts from the stitch holder onto the left needle.
1st row: (wrong side) In the first st work p 1, k 1
(this is an inc), p 5. This completes the 7-st band.
Place a marker on the needle. K across 28 [32-36-
40] remaining sts. 2nd row: K to the marker, sl
marker, k to end of row. 3rd row: k 1, p 6, sl
marker, k to the end of the row. Repeat rows 2 and
3 until the piece measures the same as back to the
ribbed yoke. End at the arm edge.
Buttonholes: Directions are the same.
To establish ribbed yoke: Continuing to work the
buttonholes opposite the pins, work as follows: 1st
row: (right side) *K 2, p 2, repeat from * to the
marker, sl marker, k 7. 2nd row: K 1, p 6, sl
marker, *k 2, p 2, repeat from * to end of the row.
Repeat 1st and 2nd rows. Complete to correspond
with the right front. Reverse the neck shaping.
Both patterns courtesy of Katherine Hixson,
Harrison County 4-H Leader.
Raglan Cardigan
Worked in a simple stockinette stitch, from the
neck down . . . for women, boys, or girls.
Knitting Worsted, 4-Ply (“Tangle-Proof” Pull-Out
Skeins):
Children Women
SIZES 8 10 12 14 16 18
Ounces 12 14 18 20 22 24
Knitting needles, 1 pair each No. 4 and No. 6.
Circular Needle No. 6.
Buttons 7 7 8 8 8 8
GAUGE: 5 sts = 1 inch; 7 rows = 1 inch
BLOCKING MEASUREMENTS
SIZES 8 10 12 14 16 18
Body chest size
(in inches) 26 28 32 34 36 38
ACTUAL KNITTING MEASUREMENTS
Chest
(buttoned) 29 31 35 37 39 41
Width across back at
underarm 14 15 17 18 19 20
Width across each front at underarm (including band)
8 8½ 9½ 10 10½ 11
Smock sweater for men
17
Length from back of neck to lower edge (excluding neckband)
17½ 18½ 22½ 23 23½ 24
Length from underarm to lower edge
11 11½ 14½ 14½ 14½ 14½
Length of sleeve seam
13 14½ 16½ 17 17 17½
Width across sleeve at upper arm
11¾ 12½ 13 13½ 14 14½
NOTE: For ease in working, a circular needle may be used
when stitches no longer fit on straight needles. Do not join;
continue in rows of stockinette st (k 1 row, p 1 row) as before.
Starting at neck edge with No. 6 needles,
cast on 36 37 41 42 45 50
1st row—wrong side: P 1 front, place a marker on the
needle; k 2-seam, place a marker on the needle; purl—
Stitches 5 5 5 5 6 7
for sleeve, place a marker; k 2-seam, place a
marker; purl—
Stitches 16 17 21 22 23 26
for back, place a marker; k 2-seam, place a marker;
purl—
Stitches 5 5 5 5 6 7
for sleeve, place a marker; k 2-seam, place a
marker; p 1-Front. 2nd row: K in front, back, and
front of first st—2 sts increased; slip marker; p 2,
slip marker; (k in front and back of the next st—one
st increased; k to within 2 sts before the next
marker, inc one st in the next st, k 1, slip marker; p
2, slip marker) 3 times; inc 2 sts in the last st as
before—10 sts increased.
NOTE: Always slip markers. 3rd and all uneven
rows: (P to the next marker, k 2) 4 times; p to the
end of the row. 4th row: Inc one st in each of the
next 2 sts, k 1, p 2, (inc in the next st, k to within 2
sts before the next marker, inc in the next st, k 1, p
2) 3 times; inc in each of the next 2 sts, k 1-10 sts
increased. 6th row: Inc in the first st, (k to within 2
sts before the next marker, inc in the next st, k 1, p
2, inc in the next st) 4 times; k to within the last 2
sts, inc in the next st, k 1—10 sts increased. Repeat
the 3rd and 6th rows alternately until there are on
the needle—
Stitches 96 107 121 132 135 150
ending with a right-side row. At the end of the last
row, cast on for the neck—
Stitches 6 6 7 7 7 7
Next row: K 6-front band; continue as for the 3rd
row. At the end of the row, cast on for the neck—
Stitches 6 6 7 7 7 7
There are on the needle—
Stitches 108 119 135 144 149 164
Neck shaping is now completed. Following row:
(K to within 2 sts before the next marker, inc in the
next st, k 1, p 2, inc in the next st) 4 times; k to the
end of the row—8 sts increased. Next row: K 6-
front band, continue as for the 3rd row to within the
last 6 sts, k 6-front band. NOTE: Buttonholes are
made on the left front band for boys and on the
right front band for girls. To make a buttonhole—k
first 2 sts, bind off next 2 sts, complete the row. On
the next row, work across, casting on 2 sts over the
bound-off sts. Repeat the last 2 rows alternately
Raglan cardigan
18
(thus increasing before and after each marker every
k row), making a buttonhole when the length from
the neck edge is—
Inches 2 2¼ 2¼ 2¼ 2¼ 2¼
and every __
inches 2½ 2¾ 2¾ 2¾ 3 3
thereafter until there are on the needle—
Stitches 244 263 279 288 301 316
ending with a p row.
For women’s sizes only—
Next row: (K to within 2 sts before the next
marker, inc in the next st, k 1, p 2, k to the next
marker, p 2, inc in the next st) twice; k to the end of
the row—4 sts increased (incs omitted on the sleeve
sections). Following row: Repeat the 3rd row.
Repeat the last 2 rows alternately until there are on
the needle—
Stitches 287 300 317 332
ending with a p row.
For all sizes—removing markers, slip the first—
Stitches 37 40 45 47 50 52
onto a stitch holder to be worked later for the front;
slip onto another holder the next—
Stitches 53 57 59 61 64 67
for the sleeve; slip onto another holder the next—
Stitches for back
64 69 79 84 89 94
SLEEVE. 1st row: Attach the yarn to the next st, k
across all—
Stitches 53 57 59 61 64 67
Cast on 3 sts for the underarm; place the remaining—
Stitches 37 40 45 47 50 52
on another holder for the other front. Turn. 2nd
row: P across, casting on 3 sts at the end of the row
for the underarm. There are on the needle—
Stitches 59 63 65 67 70 73
Work even in stockinette st for 2 inches. Dec one st
at both ends of the next and every—
Row 7th 10th 12th 12th 12th 12th*
*Must be adjusted to fit the length of the arm
Times 7 7 7 7 7 7
in all. Work even on—
Stitches 45 49 51 53 56 59
until the length from the underarm is—
Inches 10½ 12 13½ 14 14 14½
decreasing evenly on the last row—
Stitches 3 3 3 3 3 3
Change to the No. 4 needles and work in k 1, p 1
ribbing on—
Stitches 42 46 48 50 54 56
until the total length from the underarm is—
Inches 13 14½ 16½ 17 17 17½
Bind off loosely in the ribbing. With the right side
facing, attach the yarn to the first st of the other
sleeve section and work the same as the first sleeve.
BODY. Slip sts of the left front, back, and right
front onto a circular needle. With the right side
facing, k across the sts of one front, cast on 6 sts for
the underarm; k across the sts of the back, cast on 6
sts for the underarm; k across the sts of the other
front. There are on the needle—
Stitches 150 161 181 190 201 210
Do not join; work in rows. Continuing the front
bands and buttonholes as before, work even until
the length from the cast-on sts at the underarm is—
Inches 9 9½ 11½ 11½ 11½ 11½
ending with a p row and decreasing evenly on the
last row (do not decrease on the front bands)—
Stitches 1 – – 1 – 1
Change to the No. 4 needles and work in the ribbing
as follows: 1st row: K 7, p 1, *k 1, p 1. Repeat from
* across to within the last 7 sts, k 7. 2nd row: K 6,
p 1, *k 1, p 1. Repeat from * across to within the
last 6 sts, k 6. Making the buttonholes as directed,
repeat the last 2 rows alternately until the length
from the underarm is—
Inches 11 11½ 14½ 14½ 14½ 14½
19
Bind off loosely in the ribbing.
NECKBAND. With the right side facing and No. 4
needles, pick up and k around the entire neck
edge—
Stitches 75 75 79 79 81 83
Making a buttonhole on the 4th row in line with the
previous buttonholes, work in the ribbing as for the
body for 1 inch. Bind off loosely in the ribbing.
Block to measurements. Sew the sleeve and underarm
seams. Work the buttonhole stitch around the
buttonholes. Sew on the buttons.
Pattern courtesy of Coats and Clark
Show Others What
You Have Learned
Exhibits
Showing others what you have made can be fun.
Plan with your club or project group to have a
display for your parents. Share with them the things
you have learned while making your article with
pickup stitches. If you exhibit your article at the
fair, be sure that it is clearly labeled so that it can be
returned to you.
Demonstrations
Many opportunities are available to share the
things you have learned with others by giving demonstrations.
Watch for opportunities at club meetings,
at county events, and at other club activities.
Select one of the demonstrations listed or prepare
a new one. Here are a few suggestions from which
you might choose:
• How to select the correct pattern size.
• How to make increases slant to the right and left.
• How to pick up stitches.
• How to make a buttonhole.
• How to block knitted garments.
• How to make a woven seam.
• How to make a crocheted seam.
20
Knitting Notebook
Every knitter needs a notebook on file to keep useful information. This is the place to keep patterns and ideas for
future projects as well as swatches you have made and wish to keep. One very important timesaver that should be included
is a record sheet of information on each project completed. With this information, it is simple to repeat a garment or know
how to care for one already made. Record information about this year’s projects on this record. Place it in your notebook.
Pattern Co.
and # Description
Kind of
Yarn
Amount
of Yarn
Size of
Needle
Garment
Size
Stitch
Gauge
Care
Instructions
21
Scoring My Knitting
• Why I enjoyed this project: ______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
• Why I like what I made: _________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
• Cost of project: _______________________________________________________________________________________
Processes I Learned
How Well I Did On Them
Excellent Good Should Be Improved
Selection
Yarn suited to sweater
Button
Appearance
Cleanliness
Uniform Pattern
Construction
Cast on stitches
Knit
Purl
Bind off stitches
Ribbing
Increase stitches
Decrease stitches
Pick up stitches
Seams
Buttonholes
Make or select buttons
Correct mistakes
22
Knitting Record
Signed _________________________________________________ Age ________ Date ___________________________
name of 4-Her
Address ________________________________________________ County _______________________________________
Name of Club __________________________________________________________________________________________
I made: _______________________________________________________________________________________________
Skill I learned: __________________________________________________________________________________________
Why I enjoyed the project: ________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why I like what I made: __________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cost of project: _________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe exactly what you did (example: change style of raglan sleeve sweater to include seed and cable stitches):
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Other knitted articles I made this year: ______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
23
Describe how you assisted other 4-Hers with their knitting projects: _____________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
I gave demonstration on: ________________________________________________________ Date __________________
________________________________________________________ Date __________________
Describe how you have shared your skill with others in your community: _________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
I exhibited my knitting at: Award
Local 4-H Rally _____ __________________________________________________________________
County Fair _____ __________________________________________________________________
Area Event _____ __________________________________________________________________
Other Events _____ __________________________________________________________________
____________________ __________________________________________________________________
I have written a story about what I have learned in this project. It is on another sheet and I will give it to my leader.
Leader’s opinion of participant’s progress:  Excellent  Good  Fair
Approved: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________
Project Leader Parent
______________________________________________
County Extension Agent
Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin. Issued in furtherance of
Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, M. Scott Smith, Director of Cooperative Extension Service,
University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, and Kentucky State University, Frankfort.
Copyright © 2002 for materials developed by the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. This publication may be reproduced in portions or its entirety for educational or
nonprofit purposes only. Permitted users shall give credit to the author(s) and include this copyright notice. Publications are also available on the World Wide Web at http://www.ca.uky.edu.
Issued 8-1979, Revised 8-2002, 4800 copies to date.

Knitting in the Classroom

January 2, 2008

This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
1
A Guide for Bringing Knitting and Spinning into
Elementary through High School Classrooms
by Cat Bordhi
When I first decided to incorporate spinning and knitting into my seventh grade humanities
classes in Friday Harbor, Washington, I began without asking permission from the
administration, because I didn’t want to take the chance of getting no for an answer. And so a
month or two later, when the district superintendent popped through my closed door to find
youngsters draped all over the furniture, some spinning, others winding yarn, and most of
them cheerfully knitting in small clusters while an audio tape of a Sherlock Holmes story
played, in other words, with no obvious signs of normal education going on, I thought I might
be done for. I managed to keep drifting to the opposite end of the room our visitor, helping
students as far away from him as possible just so I wouldn’t have to explain myself until I had
time to think of what to say. When he finally caught up with me, I asked, “So, want to learn
to knit?” He replied, “What makes you think I already don’t know how?” and popped out the
door as quickly as he had arrived.
Later that day an email arrived. “Great class! Which Sherlock Holmes mystery was that
anyway?” I replied with the name of the story, added that we had already read and discussed it
and students had written essays on it, and then went into a long explanation of how I had
incorporated spinning and knitting into my lessons on ancient history, aiming to convince
him that my unusual choice of activities would actually support the curriculum and state
testing requirements. I ended my email with, “So, when did you learn to knit?” It turned out
he hadn’t, but in later conversations he told me that what struck him first as he came through
our door was that every single student was productively and positively engaged as a member of
a thriving community of learners, and that he had rarely seen a classroom so attentive on so
many levels: listening, working with the hands, and helping one another. The unusual fact
that almost no one had been distracted by his entrance (except for me) confirmed that
students were exceptionally absorbed.
After that I decided to test my luck by inviting my principal to visit our classroom while I led a
class discussion on ancient Mesopotamia and my students knit. He had frequently teased me
about knitting during staff meetings (“Socks! I can’t believe you’re knitting socks!” he’d say . .
. not knowing that a few years later I would be able to retire before him because of the success
of a book I would write on the subject.). A good friend and a man with the highest
professional expectations, I knew he would use his eagle eyes to scan every student for signs of
inattentiveness, and that he would expect to find plenty signs. Instead, he soon realized that
even those students who were regular visitors to his office for chronic disciplinary issues were
now giving me their full attention, and that when I asked the class to break into small groups
to discuss questions and then report back to the whole group, students made the transitions
easily, with unusual harmony. It was as if though the knitting was a vehicle carrying them
from one learning task to another, lulling the usual fidgety mischief (or worse) that normally
interferes with classroom learning. I made sure to randomly quiz individual students on details
of our discussion to prove to my principal that they were digesting everything I taught even
while knitting. He left the room surprised and convinced.
Later in the year, he allowed me to offer a school-wide class on knitting for one period a week,
and we had serious discussions about designing a year-long class, for academically challenged
students, using knitting to support their learning in all areas of the curriculum. I wrote up a
detailed plan on how I would teach math, language arts, science, and more through knitting.
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
2
Unfortunately, scheduling difficulties made it impossible for us to carry out the plan.
One of my fondest memories is of proctoring our state mandated testing, a week-long and
grueling marathon for students. Picture about a hundred anxious seventh graders, four at each
table, filling the school commons. They’re bending over test booklets, working on demanding
essays or solving challenging mathematical challenges or answering comprehension questions
on dry prose, for hour after hour. Meanwhile, I’m slowly walking about, weaving in between
the tables, a ball of yarn stuffed in my pocket and a sock rocking back and forth as it grows in
my hands. Again and again a student raises his or her weary head, then catches a glimpse of me
knitting – a familiar sight, and one that reminds them of peaceful, happy school activities.
Again and again I watch an anxious face relax, hear a sigh, and see the youngster’s shoulders
drop in relief as happy memories wash over them, and then they turn back to their tests, with
refreshed confidence. Our school placed fourth in the state that year, and I like to think it was
partly because of the knitting, and partly because of the rigor of our teaching and students.
The knitting fever spread from my classrooms to much of the rest of the middle school, and
several elementary school teachers began to teach knitting too. A substitute teacher at the high
school started a knitting club for teenagers, and a friend who taught at a local private school
integrated knitting into her English classes. In every setting, initially skeptical administrators
and staff were won over by the results: attention-deficit (ADHD) students who seemed
transformed, evaporating management problems, increased engagement in learning, in some
cases more regular attendance, and a beneficial atmosphere of alert, peaceful contentment and
community in the classroom.
Incidentally, we had virtually no gender issues around knitting. The lesson plans I include
guide students in actually inventing spinning and knitting, much as their ancestors might
have, sparking the thrill of invention, creativity, and survival. Initial projects include a fishing
net, a model of a tree house knitted directly into a tree, and small bags. Boys and girls alike
light up with excitement at the chance to pursue these goals.
When knitting is integrated into the curriculum (see lessons that follow) and integrated into
the daily routine of class (for instance, when students are encouraged to take out their knitting
projects during class discussions or other times when hands and eyes are free), an alert
peacefulness arises in the room, opening a window for education. Many students told me that
knitting had made them feel differently about school – it had become a haven instead of a
burden. I watched tentative friendships develop between students from widely differing social
groups, chronically inattentive students become intellectually engaged in class discussions, and
marveled at the dramatic drop in classroom management. In my opinion, knitting is one of
the cheapest and most effective ways to improve educational engagement and foster a positive
social environment for learning that I have ever experienced.
Knitting develops fine-motor skills, hand-eye coordination, math skills, and what Multiple
Intelligences educational researcher Dr. Howard Gardner calls “Bodily-Kinesthetic
Intelligence”. Since both hands hold needles and each hand has its own job, both sides of the
brain are engaged and performing an internal rhythmic patterning that underlies the
development of language skills, particularly reading, and also math. A classroom community
of knitters frequently makes great strides in what Dr. Gardner calls “Interpersonal
Intelligence,” as they mentor one another, share conversation while working productively,
encourage one another, and enjoy the calming yet challenging task of knitting. In addition,
knitting develops key habits that lead to success in academics and in careers: persistence,
concentration, and collaboration.
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
3
The series of lessons that follow can be adapted for students from about third or fourth grade
all the way through high school, and will fully engage students of widely varying abilities. The
activities are captivating, hands-on, and awaken a sense of wonder, excitement, and intrigue in
students who may have always found history and social studies dull. The lessons appeal equally
to boys and girls, and if a teacher wonders if boys will want to knit, these lessons, alive with
the thrill of invention, survival, and practical application, will make the answer yes. If the full
sequence of lessons is followed, all major areas of the curriculum, from science to math to
language arts, will be involved. Some lessons may be spread over two to three sessions,
depending on time available. An extensive bibliography appears at the end.
And so you can see why I want to promote knitting in schools. Here you will find directions
for starting a program, whether you are a teacher or a yarn shop owner. I hope you and your
students will experience your own unique version of the benefits I and others have enjoyed.
Quick Glance: steps for teaching knitting in a school
1. Line up volunteers and initial supplies
2. (see lesson plans) The adventure and excitement of discovery, survival, and invention
captures the attention of both boys and girls, making them eager to learn to knit.
3. Volunteers help teach students to knit; soon students begin to teach other students
4. Choose among the suggestions for ways to integrate knitting into curricular areas
(math, science, social studies, language arts)
Detailed steps for teaching knitting in a school
Gather volunteer knitting instructors
Begin to make a list of volunteer knitting instructors ahead of time, so they will be ready when
the students are. Contact senior centers, knitting guilds, churches, and your regular customers,
explaining your goals and asking for their help. Describe the rewards of being a volunteer: the
opportunity to enjoy the company of several youngsters, passing on the traditions of an
ancient craft, experiencing first-hand a local learning community, and positively contributing
to the school environment. Explain that volunteers would be working with a few students at a
time under the supervision of the classroom teacher. Once you have a classroom teacher ready
to start the program, ask them to inquire among the students’ families (including
grandparents) and older students for more volunteer instructors.
Handmade and free materials to start with – or some yarn shop support
If there are funds available to purchase initial supplies, I suggest that all students begin with
very light colors of worsted to heavy-worsted weight yarn (a single ply wool is easiest to knit
with, if available) and short wooden needles. If funds are not available, it is almost better,
because the process of making needles from dowels or chopsticks immediately invests the
students in learning to use them. Information on making needles is available in Kids Knitting
by Melanie Falick as well as on-line sources and other books. Free yarn can usually be found in
former knitters’ closets – ask for yarn and needle donations at the same time that you put out
a call for knitting instructors. If yarn must be purchased, suggest the students put on a bake
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
4
sale to earn the funds. Or, if unspun fleece can be obtained, have the students start with a little
hand-spinning. (See lesson plans for all these activities)
Use lesson plans and integrate knitting into the curriculum
Teachers can modify the detailed lesson plans as suits their needs. The lessons included in this
packet are extensive enough to use over several months’ time, and the suggestions for
integrating knitting into other areas of the curriculum could spread over an entire year.
As the program becomes established, positive results are observable
As a classroom of students begin to knit regularly, the atmosphere and community within a
classroom usually becomes more positive, sometimes dramatically. Formerly antagonistic
cliques of students begin to merge as they share a common fascination. Students who are
academically challenged are often at the top of the class in learning to knit, and are able to
help teach their normally advanced peers. Students with ADHD (Attention Deficit
Hyperactive Disorder) may suddenly become attentive, thoughtful students while their hands
are occupied with the rhythms of knitting. In my classroom, I allowed students to knit any
time their hands and eyes were not required for other tasks, and it dramatically increased the
attention and engagement in class discussions, lectures, and most of all, in creating a positive
atmosphere for learning and treating others with respect and kindness.
James Krag, M.D., explains why he supports knitting in the classroom
“I am a psychiatrist working as Medical Director of a Community Mental Health
Center in Virginia. I am also the psychiatric consultant for our child and family
team and for our in-school programs. I strongly support knitting as an activity
for all children but I think that it has added benefit for children with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. For them, it can be very helpful to have a project
going that they can be busy with between assignments. In fact, many with
ADHD are actually able to listen better to lectures or classroom discussion if they
are also knitting. This may not work for all students but over my years of work in
both out-patient and residential programs I have learned that some people listen
better when they are “using up” some of their hyperactivity. The soothing and
repetitive quality of knitting can occupy just enough of their attention so that
they are not as distracted from listening. Knitting also helps children learn the
skill of focusing, and they may be less likely to bother other students while
knitting. Knitting also gives children a sense of completion that is very tangible.
Once learned, there is a feeling of mastery that can be generalized to other aspects
of their lives. I strongly encourage more teachers to experiment with encouraging
students to learn and practice knitting at school.”
LESSON PLANS FOLLOW ON NEXT PAGE
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
5
A Whirlwind Journey Through Early Civilization —
The advent of spinning and textiles, and discovery of knitting
Lesson One: The discovery of spinning
Before teaching this lesson, practice finger-spinning, then spinning with a rudimentary drop
spindle (see lesson two for directions to make one of a stick and a potato). Expertise is not
necessary, just the ability to make a length of string. This web site offers comprehensive
instructions: http://www.interweave.com/spin/resources/spinning_brochures.asp
The discovery of spinning would have been made by thousands of people over thousands of
years. If you have ever picked up something and begun twisting it or bending it, then you can
easily imagine a primitive person picking a tuft of fur, wool, or hair caught on a thorn bush,
and pulling the fibers apart and twisting them. The discovery that fragile, single fibers become
strong and powerful when twisted in groups would have kept a prehistoric tribe’s attention.
Over time, a variety fibers would have been identified and experimented with, from wool,
hair, vines, and the strong fibers left in rotting bast fibers, such as nettles and flax.
Materials: Ask students to bring in combings from family pets and hair from family brushes.
Obtain enough unspun fleece (ask your local yarn shop to find a supply if they don’t carry it)
to supplement what the students bring. You might also ask your local dog groomer for
combings. If the materials are not very clean, soak them for half an hour in warm soapy water,
lift out gently, and soak in several warm rinse waters. Do not agitate or the fibers may clump
and felt. Press between dry towels and then let dry on another dry towel.
Step One: Give each student a small fiber supply, and ask them to imagine they are a
prehistoric wanderer. They just found a bit of a wild animal’s wool that had got caught on a
thorn bush. Ask them to break one single fiber, to see how strong it is. Then ask them to line
up a group of about five fibers and try breaking them. Then students should try twisting a
group of five fibers and try breaking them. Ask them to compare the strength of a single fiber
to that of five untwisted, to that of five twisted together. Now that the magic of twisted fibers
has been discovered, students can experiment with ways of twisting groups of fibers together
into as long a strand as possible, first alone, and then with a partner. After a period of time, ask
students to write a description of what they have discovered and the techniques that work best,
or for young children, to tell the class.
Step Two: Ask students to brainstorm a list of wild animals whose fur or wool might be caught
on thorn bushes or made available in a hunt, as well as plant fibers that offer long fibers
(someone may recall the fairy tale of the eleven brothers who turn into swans and must be
saved by their sister, who is spinning and knitting nettle shirts for all of them). Their ideas
may include: Mountain goat, yak, wild horses, wild sheep, camels, wolves, big cats, foxes,
raccoons, skunks, possum, beavers, human hair, moth cocoons (silk), nettles, flax, hemp,
vines.
Step Three: Ask students to brainstorm primitive uses for this new invention (point out that
everything from sewing thread to heavy rope is now possible), such as: dragging home large
game, securing a container to shoulders or forehead for carrying, closing a bladder or stomach
sack of food, tying hair out of face, hanging food from trees so bears won’t eat it, climbing
trees to get away from bears, sewing garments out of skins, building skin tents – joining skins
to make larger dwellings, tying bundles of greens together to bring home, making nets for
catching fish, nets for carrying fruits, nuts, etc., ability to tie skins on feet as shoes, and finally
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
6
– when someone fiddles around enough to produce the first knitting (or weaving or felting)
the invention of fabric – an alternative to those heavy animal skins!
Lesson Two: I need four hands to make really long rope or yarn, but only have two!
A spinner of long cords must continually manage four operations: hold the fiber supply and
feed (draft) it evenly, manage the twist point so it doesn’t move into the fiber supply, twist the
drafted fibers, and store the twisted fibers so they don’t unwind. For a single spinner to
succeed, two of these operations must be “automatic” or independent of the hands. The
invention that solved this problem, which is at least 20,000 years old, is a drop spindle. This
wondrous tool allows the twisting and storage jobs go on automatic for long enough to make
progress with the other two tasks. Before teaching this lesson, go to this web site to learn how
to use a hand spindle. Depending on the age of your students, you may want to print the
beautifully written and illustrated brochures for them to read.
http://www.interweave.com/spin/resources/spinning_brochures.asp. For instructions on
making perfectly decent drop spindles from discarded CD’s, go here:

http://www.interweave.com/spin/files/CDspindles.pdf

Materials: For the spindle shaft: 1/8” dowels, or chopsticks, or pencils, or straight sticks; for
the whorl: clay or round firm fruits/vegetables such as apples or potatoes (may be sliced into
circles), unspun wool for spinning
Step One: Demonstrate that it is hard for one person to spin a really long strand and continue
spinning, because four things must happen: one, the fiber supply must be available and fed
evenly (called drafting), two, the twist must be controlled by pinching it off so it doesn’t rise
up and entangle the whole fiber supply, three, the fiber must be twisted, and four, the twisted
fiber must be stored so it doesn’t unwind while the next section is being spun. Ask two
students to demonstrate the four jobs using their four hands. Explain that the challenge will be
to invent a tool that allows one person instead of two to spin long lengths of rope or yarn.
Step Two: Ask students: which of the four jobs would be easiest to replace with a tool
(probably storage)? Ask for ideas and methods and list on the board. Assuming the storage
device is “invented”, ask students how many hands are now required (three). They may
suggest winding the fiber onto a stick as a storage device, and then having the second person
twist the stick while the first person drafts fiber and manages the point of twist. This takes care
of one job. If class does not choose twisting as the next job to replace, lead them in this
direction.
You may eventually have to demonstrate that a stick (spindle shaft) suspended by a string with
a round centered weight (whorl) at the bottom of the stick may be set to spin for anywhere
from a few seconds to up to a minute. This primitive drop spindle can be made of a stick
inserted through a whorl made of clay, or a potato (choose very round potatoes) or slice of a
potato or apple. A notch at the top allows the yarn to be looped around and stay put (the spun
yarn can be wound around the stick beneath the whorl). A lesson on the physics of spinning
fits in here. Briefly, heavy mass ( for instance, a thick or large whorl) causes more inertia in a
rotating object than light mass, meaning the heavy mass will slow the momentum of the
spinning rapidly. Where the mass (of the whorl) is located in relationship to the center (the
shaft) of the rotating object affects the duration of spinning – if the mass is closer to the
center, the spin is shorter and faster. If the mass is farther from the center, the spin will be
longer but slower. When the mass if farther from the center this also has a stabilizing
influence, so that the spindle wobbles less. Experiments to demonstrate or discover these
principles may be carried out, measured, discussed, and recorded. Consider using several sizes
of apples or potatoes, so that a wide whorl and a narrow whorl can be used together, to
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
7
increase the center mass. To increase outer mass, an apple or potato will need to be carved
thinner at the center.
Step Three: Assist students to make the drop spindle of their choice (after completing the
physics experiments) and actually try spinning. It would be helpful to have some skilled
volunteers to help individuals succeed, and you might also want to have a few manufactured
spindles to show students and use for demonstration.
Lesson Three: Knitting useful items, before the invention of needles
Now that the tribe has discovered how to manufacture lengths of string, rope, and yarn, they
will be inventing ways to use it. Up until now, when they wanted “fabric,” they’ve had to kill
an animal and prepare the skin. Can the invention of string create a new kind of fabric?
Knitting a string or rope tree house is actually a great way to learn the rudiments of knitting.
(Note: teacher must try knitting a tree house on the Y-shaped branch before teaching this
lesson.)
Materials: 100 yards of heavy string, a Y-shaped branch with limbs 15” – 30” in length; if
possible, enough Y-shaped branches and string so that each group of 3-4 students can work
with one; and printed handout of tree-house knitting instructions, which may be downloaded
at: http://catbordhi.com/downloads/treehouse_knitting.pdf
Step One: If you live in a region with dangerous animals who want to eat you, it would be
helpful to climb trees quickly and make yourself comfortable up there until the animal leaves.
A long rope would help you climb a tree quickly. How about using a rope to build a platform
where you can safely sleep with no fear of falling? Teacher, with assistance from a student or
two, demonstrates tree house knitting in a Y-shaped branch. If enough materials are available,
students work in small groups to knit tree houses. Note how quickly and easily the tree house
goes up and comes down – very helpful for a nomad.
Step Two: An alternative project is to knit a string net: two students may also knit a long
rectangle by using one arm for the cast-on and another for the new stitches, while the second
student maneuvers the string. This can become a fishing net or a bag for hauling things.
Step Three: Final challenge (extra credit?): ask students to try to figure out how to knit with
sticks and string, alone (only two hands) and demonstrate to class next time.
Historical note:
The earliest textile artifacts found were not knitted, but woven, and are fossilized
impressions, because the fabric itself disintegrated. The earliest knitted artifacts are about a
thousand years old and are the actual textiles. Many historians believe that knitting was a
much later development than weaving. However, I question that conclusion, for the
following reasons: One, not finding fossilized impressions of knitting does not mean it did
not exist in an earlier time. Two, knitting is more portable, requires less equipment, and
less preparation than weaving, and early tribes were nomadic. Three, the basic operation of
knitting, pulling a loop through a loop, is not sophisticated and might happen
spontaneously, just as the first spinning must have happened spontaneously. There are many
plausible scenarios which support the possibility of knitting having arisen spontaneously
anywhere there was fiber to work with. I believe that the rudiments of knitting, like
spinning, must have been invented many times in many places. Perhaps someday more
historical evidence of these events will come to light.
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
8
Lesson Four: Invention of knitting needles – let’s begin knitting!
With this lesson, some real knitters who can help teach skills will be very helpful, although the
previous lesson will have taught students a great deal about the basic moves of knitting. Ideally
the students will make their own knitting needles, or if time is short, prepare the needles ahead
of time. (Note: this lesson is designed to extend over several weeks’ time)
Materials: pointed branches; or chopsticks or 1/8” dowels cut to about 10” and pencil
sharpener; large beads or self-hardening clay and glue, paraffin melted with mineral oil and
cooled, fine sandpaper, real yarn for students to work with, a small supply of blunt-tipped
tapestry needles for sewing up knitting projects
Step One: Make needles by sharpening dowels or chopsticks at one end, sanding until smooth
and until the point is rounded, gluing a bead or clay ball on the blunt end, and rubbing with
the paraffin-mineral oil mixture. Each knitter needs a pair. Students may make their own,
which gives them a sense of pride and ownership, and invests them in learning to use the new
tools. (Note: regular pencils, sharpened, written with enough to wear the tips smooth and round,
and then dipped in shellac and allowed to dry, make decent beginner’s knitting needles. A rubber
band around the eraser end will keep stitches from slipping off.)
Step Two: Teaching new knitters is easiest if an experienced knitter casts on 10 stitches and
knits the first two rows. Then a mnemonic device (for instance, “In through the front door/
Once around the back/ Peek through the window/ And off jumps Jack.”) and the help of an
experienced knitter working with 2-4 students at a time, will get the class started. Ask students
to count at the end of each row to be sure they still have 10 stitches. Expect a great deal of
variation in the ease or difficulty of learning, and allow several sessions for students to become
comfortable with the new movements. Explain that a choice of knitting projects will soon
follow.
Step Three: (Make sure volunteer instructors are still here for this part of the lesson.) Once
students can knit 10 rows of 10 stitches each without significant mistakes, they are ready to
choose a small project. First however, teach the basics of stitch gauge, using their practice
pieces for analysis. Ask students to measure the number of stitches in 2” of width and the
number of rows in 2” of length, and record this information. If all students have used the same
yarn and the same size needles, note the wide range of gauge differences and point out that
knitting is very individual, and that with practice their gauge will become regular and
predictable. Present the following project ideas and ask students to determine reasonable
dimensions, then calculate the number of stitches they would need to cast on at their gauge to
make each one:
• Knitted bag – knit a rectangle, sew into bag
• Knitted leg or wrist-warmers – knit long rectangles and sew one side
• Knitted hat – rectangle sewn and gathered at top
• Fishing net (knit of string on large needles) which may be sewn onto a branch bent
into a hoop shape
Step Four: Students write about, sketch, graph, and present to each other what they have
learned while learning to knit and creating their projects. This represents the beginning of the
transmission of patterns and skills through generations.
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
9
Lesson Five: In the 21st Century – are we still wearing the same basic technology?
Materials: Magnifying glasses
Step One: Students examine their clothing with magnifying glasses and identify knitted fabric
and woven fabric, making sketches of the path the spun fiber takes in knitting and in weaving.
Have students list those garments or accessories that are knitted and those that are woven and
analyze why they group as they do. Ask: what are the advantages of knitted versus woven fabric
in terms of comfort, durability, etc.? If a prehistoric tribe was skilled in both technologies,
where might they have used knitting and where weaving?
Step Two: If there is time to extend this lesson, research may be done (see bibliography)to trace
what is known of the history of knitting and weaving, and essays may be written discussing the
historical facts and how this aligns with the student’s own insights into how textile technology
might have evolved over time.
Lesson Six: Design Teams
Groups of 2 – 4 students work together to design a knitted project which would be useful to a
21st century person as well as to a prehistoric person. Depending on the inclinations and skills
within the group, they may choose to spin the fiber and make the needles, or use
manufactured yarn and needles. Requirements of the project:
• Thoughtful teamwork – using each member’s talents fully and positively
• Recording of design process through brainstorming and implementation, including
written descriptions, directions, and illustrations (a graphic design and publishing
program, and digital photography would be wonderful)
• Presentation of project to class
• Demonstration of usefulness of finished design
• Evaluation includes reflection on process – strengths as a group and as individuals,
learning that would enhance next group project, alternative paths design might have
followed, and what finished design suggests for further evolution
Ongoing Lesson and Activities, integrated into curricular areas
Technical writing and editing:
Once basic knitting skills are established, a small team of students may be asked to
innovate simple designs and write patterns, then exchange patterns with another team
to test-knit the patterns. Students will be evaluated on both the original patterns and
their clarity as well as the collaborative teamwork and editing resulting from
discussions between the teams during the test-knitting.
Narrative and descriptive writing:
Students may be asked to compose introductory narrative to their patterns (either their
original pattern or one they have followed) describing its winning elements and
advantages. Encourage use of sensory vocabulary and require a “hook” in the first
sentence.
Literature
See bibliography for extensive list of knitting and fiber-related books, mostly for young
children. Treasure Forest, a Nautilus Award winning novel by Cat Bordhi, offers
middle and high school readers a complex tale with elements of spinning and knitting
woven through its foundations.
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
10
Reading to follow directions
Pattern reading and then following the directions is an excellent practice and the
results are self-evaluating.
Vocabulary
Ask students to use a thesaurus as well as the Internet to collect examples of the verb
“knit” used not to describe textiles, but for other purposes, such as “knitting the brows
together in concentration”, etc. After compiling a list with as much variety as possible,
students can write reflections on how the word knit might have evolved into each
usage.
History
At least one historian (Elizabeth Wayland Barber, author of Women’s Work: The First
20,000 Years) claims that the invention of twisted cordage is one of the most
revolutionary factors in human civilization. Ask students to reflect on, research, and
analyze this claim and present their well-supported conclusions in either an essay or
class presentation.
Math
Knitting offers wonderful opportunities for learning math in a hands-on way (and is
ideal for writing about and illustrating mathematical understanding), for curious math
learners of all ages and levels. Consider the simple counting of stitches or rows, or the
proportions of stitch gauge (compare, for instance, the row-stitch proportions of garter
stitch to stockinette, or the significance of gauge being off by a half stitch per inch in
something small like an eyeglass case as opposed to a large sweater, or the geometric
possibilities of shaping (see http://www.woollythoughts.com/index.html – Pat Ashforth and
Steve Plummer’s website – a treasure trove for educators! Enough geometric and other
mathematical applications of knitting and crocheting to keep any classroom going for a year
or two), or the topological adventures presented in Cat Bordhi’s two Treasuries of
Magical Knitting, where the mysterious Moebius strip appears in vivid reality when
knitted.
Science
In addition to the physics of spinning, many science investigations can be done with
fiber. The chemistry of dyeing, techniques for identifying unknown fibers, the botany
of bast fibers, the physics and calculus of elasticity are but a few.
Consumer and environmental issues
The above activities help teach students about textile production, global resources,
industrialization, and third world handwork methods.
Evaluating the Success of an Academic Knitting Program
The following elements (as well as individual projects found in lesson plans, etc.) may be evaluated
according to a teacher’s customary method.
• Focus and concentration
• Persistence
• Improving math, writing, and reading skills
• Critical thinking and problem-solving
• Creative innovation and synthesis
• Quality of engagement in curricular areas integrated with knitting
• Positive social behaviors
• Mentoring, especially as it crosses social groups
• Hand-eye coordination and small motor skills
• Project completion
• Presentations
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
11
• Teamwork
Bibliography
Books and web sites on teaching children to knit
http://www.woolworks.org/kids.html – directions for teaching kids to knit
http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev100.shtml – excellent article on
teaching knitting in schools with good links
http://www.sethboydenpta.org/KnittingTogether.html – description of a school knitting
program
http://cerebro.cs.xu.edu/~smbelcas/math-knit.html – comprehensive links to mathematical
knitting
http://www.woollythoughts.com/index.html – Pat Ashforth and Steve Plummer’s website – a
treasure trove for educators! Enough geometric and other mathematical applications of
knitting and crocheting to keep any classroom going for a year or two.
http://www.detnews.com/2005/metro/0503/25/D01-128659.htm – great article on knitting in
schools and medical benefits for adults
http://www.millennialchild.com/Handwork01.htm – handwork and intellectual development
http://www.boloji.com/wfs4/wfs426.htm – article about boys learning to knit
http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/chemistry_reactivedyes_lesson.shtml – a lesson adaptable for
elementary through high school on the chemistry of dyeing.
Kids Knitting: Projects for Kids of All Ages by Melanie Falick ISBN 1885183763
A First Book of Knitting for Children by Bonnie Gosse and Jill Allerton ISBN
0946206368 (available from http://www.knittersbookshelf.com)
Knitting for Children – a Second Book by Bonnie Gosse & Jill Allerton ISBN 094620653
(available from http://www.knittersbookshelf.com)
Books and web sites on knitting and spinning

http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/010.html

http://www.alitadesigns.com/knitting.php

http://www.apparelsearch.com/Definitions/Fabric/Knitting_history.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_knitting

A History of Handknitting by Richard Rutt ISBN 1931499373
No Idle Hands: The Social History of American Knitting by Anne Macdonald ISBN
0345362535
The Alden Amos Big Book of Handspinning by Alden Amos ISBN 1883010888
Children’s Books with Knitting and Fiber Related Subjects
The following lists were compiled by Myrna Stahman (author of Stahman’s Scarves and
Shawls), who explains: “A request for information on knitting “legends” sent me to my book
shelves to review some of the children’s books I have collected. When my children, who are now
23 and 28, graduated from elementary school I began volunteering in a kindergarten classroom
of a low income school, reading to the class about once a week (or as often as my work schedule
permitted). I would pick story books that related to the letter of the alphabet they were studying
that week, trying my best to have the books also relate to knitting or a fiber related activity so
that I could bring additional things to show and share with them.”
Picture books:
A Gift From the Lonely Doll by Dare Wright, no ISBN located; published by Random
House, Inc., copyright 1966
Angelita’s Magic Yarn by Doris Lecher ISBN 0-374-30332-0
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
12
Boys Don’t Knit! by Janice Schoo, illustrated by Laura Beingessner ISBN 0-88961-107-6
Claire and the Friendly Snakes by Lindsey Tate, illustrated by Jonathan Franklin 0-374-
31337-7
Daisy and her Needles by Keith Balding ISBN 0-7181-3333-1
Derek the Knitting Dinosaur by Mary Blackwood, illustrated by Kerry Argent ISBN 0-
87614-400-8
Jeremy’s Muffler by Laura F. Nielsen, illustrated by Christine M. Schneider ISBN 0-
68980319-2
Knitted by Grandma by Ruth Hearson ISBN 0-8037-2689-9
Mr. Nick’s Knitting by Margaret Wild, illustrated by Dee Huxley ISBN 0-15-200518-8
The Long Red Scarf by Nette Hilton, illustrated by Margaret Power ISBN 0-87614-399-
0
The Winter Mittens written and illustrated by Tim Arnold ISBN 0-689-50449-7
Story book for preteens:
Knit Wits by William Taylor, ISBN 1-86943-114-6 Charlie, whose mother is a fashion
model but rather odd, and whose grandmother is a feminist weight lifter, decides that
he will have to knit a baby present for his new sibling.
A few knitting books for kids and kids at heart:
A Lamb’s Tale by Lucy Langford, photography by Mike Langford ISBN 0-85921-220-3
Amanda the Amazing Merino by John Parker, illustrated by Jeffrey Parker ISBN 0-
908670-27-3
Fiber related kids’ picture books:
How a Shirt Grew in the Field by Konstantin Ushinsky, adapted from the Russian by
Marguerita Rudolph, illustrated by Erika Weihs 0-395-59761-7
How to Spin a Rabbit by Helen von Ammon, illustrated by Erin Mauterer ISBN 0-
9647756-3-8
Kids Knits ISBN 0-9520872-0-0
Mary Had a Little Lamb by Sara Josepha Hale, illustrated by Salley Mavor ISBN 0-531-
08725-5
Milton and Matilda – The Musk Oxen Who Went to China by Nancy Best, illustrated
by Robert McClay, no ISBN, copyright 1982
Octavia Warms Up by Barbara Beak, illustrated by Lynne Farmer ISBN 0-85953-785-2
Rumpelstiltskin’s Daughter by Diane Stanley ISBN0-688-14327-X
Sheep in Wolves’ Clothing by Satoshi Kitamura ISBN 0-374-36780-9
Sheep Station by Philip Holden ISBN 1-8694-8977-2
Smudge, the Little Lost Lamb by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown ISBN 0-
31206406-7
Sunny’s Mittens: Learn-to-knit Lovikka Mittens by Robin Hansen, illustrated by Lois
Leonard Stock ISBN 0-89272-290-8
The Chief’s Blanket by Michael Chanin, illustrated by Kim Howard ISBN0-915811-78-2
The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polacco ISBN 0-689-82090-9
The Long Silk Strand, A Grandmother’s Legacy to Her Granddaughter by Laura E.
Williams, illustrated by Grayce Bochak ISBN 1-56397-236-0
The Mary Frances Knitting and Crocheting Book by Jane Eayre Fryer ISBN 0-915896-
90-0
The Mitten adapted and illustrated by Jan Brett ISBN 0-399-21920-X
The Mitten by Alvin Tresselt, illustrated by Yaroslava ISBN 0-590-33562-6
The Spider Weaver – A Legend of Kente Cloth by Margaret Musgrove and Julia Cairns
ISBN0-590-98787-9
This material is a free download at http://www.catbordhi.com (go to the free knitting patterns)
13
The Winged Tiger and The Lace Princess by Phil Yeh and Lieve Jerger ISBN 0-
9644149-4-5
Walter Worm’s Good Turn by Barbara Beak, illustrated by Lynne Farmer ISBN 0-
85953-785-4
Warm as Wool by Scott Russell Sanders, illustrated by Helen Cogancherry ISBN 0-02-
778139-9
When Sheep Cannot Sleep – the Counting Book by Satoshi Kitamura 0-374-48359-0
Novels for older students:
Treasure Forest by Cat Borsht ISBN 0968236480, which recently won the Nautilus
Award for Young Adult Fiction. As Cat wrote to me, “If you want to knit a tree house
directly into a tree, this is the book that will teach you how! It also includes spinning
and sock knitting . . . and a golden thread that runs through everything in the most
mysterious yet familiar way. The book is suitable for readers from about age 9 on up to
109 . . .” I own this book, have read it, and highly recommend it.
What I Call Life by Jill Wolfson, ISBN 0805076697 is a new book I just read, which I
believe belongs in the company of every foster child. One of the characters in the book
is simply the “Knitting Lady”.

Knit Dinasours

January 2, 2008

Xtreme-Knitting!
Dinosaurs
I originally designed these knitted dinosaurs for little boys, but judging from the reactions of
my male (and female) friends, all fully grown up, they would be a fantastic gift for anybody!
They are quite easy to knit, but lots of little parts make for some slightly fiddly finishing, so I
would say they are intermediate in difficulty.
Each dinosaur can easily be made from 1 ball of the specified yarn, so all 3 can be made
cheaply, and in cotton they are machine-washable – essential after they’ve been made to fight
in the mud!
Pattern is below, with a bigger photo of each dinoasur.
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
SIZE
One Size
FINISHED MEASUREMENTS
Bronty:
Length from Head to Tail: 11 inches
Height from floor to Head: 7 inches
Mr. Stegs:
Length from Head to Tail: 11.5 inches
Height from floor to highest point on Back: 5.5 inches
Trice:
Length from Head to Tail: 11.5 inches
Height from floor to highest point on Back: 5 inches
MATERIALS
Yarn A Rowan Handknit DK Cotton [100% Cotton; 85m per 50g ball];
color: Gooseberry [219]; 1 ball
Yarn B Rowan Handknit DK Cotton [100% Cotton; 85m per 50g ball];
color: Celery [309]; 1 ball
Yarn C Rowan Handknit DK Cotton [100% Cotton; 85m per 50g ball];
color: Double Choc [315]; 1 ball
Oddment of same weight yarn/embroidery thread in Black (to embroider face)
1 set US #6/4mm straight needles (plus one extra for BRONTY for 3 needle bind off)
Tapestry Needle
Stuffing
GAUGE
20 sts/28 rows = 4″ in stockinette stitch
PATTERN NOTES
For seaming the dinosaurs, I found that the best method was to backstitch any cast on edges
together where necessary, and to use mattress stitch for all other seams, sewing only half a
stitch away from the edge.
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
BRONTY
Use Yarn A
Body and Tail
Cast on 10sts
Work 2 rows of st st
Next row: *k1 m1* rep to last st, k1, 19 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: *k2 m1* rep 3 more times, k3, *m1 k2* rep to end, 27 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: *k3 m1* rep to last 3 sts, k3, 35 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: *k4 m1* rep 3 more times, k3, *m1 k4* rep to end, 43 sts
Next row: purl
Work 20 rows of st st
Next row: *k3 k2tog tbl* rep 3 more times, k3, *k2tog k3* rep to end, 35 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: *k2 k2tog tbl* rep 3 more times, k3, *k2tog k2* rep to end, 27 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: *k1 k2tog tbl* rep 3 more times, k3, *k2tog, k1* rep to end, 19 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: k2 k2tog tbl, k to last 4 sts, k2tog k2
Work 3 rows
Rep last 4 rows 5 more times, 7 sts
Next row: k2 s1 k2tog psso k2, 5 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: k1 s1 k2tog psso k1, 3sts
Next row: purl
Break yarn and thread through rem 3 sts, leaving a long tail of yarn for seaming.
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
Legs (make 4)
Cast on 4 sts and work 6 rows of garter st
Next row: Cast on 10 sts and knit row, 14 sts
Work 13 more rows in st st, starting and ending with a purl row.
Bind off, leaving a long tail of yarn for seaming.
Neck and Head
Cast on 12 sts and work 20 rows of st st
Cast on 5 sts at beg of next 2 rows, 22 sts
Next row: k2 m1 k8 m1 k2 m1 k8 m1 k2, 26 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 m1 k10 m1 k2 m1 k10 m1 k2, 30 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: k2 k2tog tbl k8 k2tog tbl k2 k2tog k8 k2tog k2, 26 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 k2tog tbl k6 k2tog tbl k2 k2tog k6 k2tog k2, 22 sts
Next row: p11, place right sides together and bind off k-wise using a third needle, leaving a
long tail of yarn for seaming.
FINISHING
Body and Tail
Seam the piece together, stuffing as you go.
Head and neck
Seam front of head.
Using oddment of black yarn/thread, embroider eyes by making a cross st.
Embroider a smile over the seam at the front of the head, using back stitch.
Using back stitch, seam together cast on edges under the head.
Seam down the neck, stuffing as you go.
Using photo as a guide for positioning, slip stitch neck onto body.
If the neck is too floppy, secure in place by making additional stitches from the back of the
neck to the body to pull the neck up into place.
Legs
Sew down legs and then sew the tube you have just made onto the garter st square at the
bottom.
Stuff.
Sew onto the body by slip stitching all around the top of the tube onto knitted stitches on the
belly.
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
MR. STEGS
Use Yarn B
Head, Body and Tail
Cast on 4 sts and work 2 rows of st st
Next row: *k1 m1* rep 2 more times, k1, 7 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: *k1 m1* rep 5 more times, k1, 13 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: *k1 m1* rep 11 more times, k1, 25 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: *k1 k2tog tbl* rep 3 more times, k1, *k2tog k1* rep to end, 17 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: *k1 k2tog tbl* rep 1 more time, k5, *k2tog k1* rep 1 more time, 13 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: k3 k2tog tbl k3 k2tog k3, 11 sts
Work 3 rows
Next row: k5 k2tog k4, 10 sts
Work 3 rows
Now work as for Body and Tail from BRONTY, following directions starting straight after cast
on row.
Legs (make 4)
As for BRONTY
Spiney Back
Cast on 2 sts and knit 2 rows
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
Row 1: yfwd k2
Row 2: k3
Row 3: yfwd k3
Row 4: k4
Row 5: yfwd k4
Row 6: k5
Row 7: k2tog k3
Row 8: k4
Row 9: k2tog k2
Row 10: k3
Row 11: k2tog k1
Row 12: k2
Rep these 12 rows 7 times more, making a total of 8 spines
Bind off
Tail Spikes (make 4)
Cast on 6 sts
Bind off, leaving a tail for seaming.
FINISHING
Head, Body and Tail
Seam the piece together, stuffing as you go, up to the neck.
Using back stitch, fold the cast on edge in half and seam together.
Using oddment of black yarn/thread, embroider eyes by making a cross st.
Embroider a smile over the seam at the front of the head, using back stitch.
Finish seaming the piece together.
Legs
Sew down legs and then sew the tube you have just made onto the garter st square at the
bottom.
Stuff.
Sew onto the body by slip stitching all around the top of the tube onto knitted stitches on the
belly.
Spiney Back
Pin in place along the centre of the body, using photograph as a guide for positioning.
Stitch in place by stitching through the bottom of the spiney trim from left to right, under a
stitch on the main body from right to left, and back through the trim – this creates an invisible
seam.
Tail Spikes
Sew in place in pairs on the tail.
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
TRICE
Use Yarn C
Head, Body and Tail
Cast on 10 sts and work 2 rows in st st
Next row: k2 m1 k3 m1 k3 m1 k2, 13 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 m1, k to last 2 sts, m1 k2
Next row: purl
Rep last 2 rows 4 time more, 23 sts
Next row: k2 m1 k6 m1 k7 m1 k6 m1 k2, 27 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 m1 k8 m1 k7 m1 k8 m1 k2, 31 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 m1 k9 m1 k9 m1 k9 m1 k2, 35 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 m1 k10 m1 k11 m1 k10 m1 k2, 39 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k2 m1 k11 m1 k13 m1 k11 m1 k2, 43 sts
Next row: purl
Now work as for Body and Tail from BRONTY, following directions starting from “work 20
rows of st st”.
Frill
With head and RS facing, pick up and knit centre 13 sts from 12th row of head (the last row
before the increases in the middle of the rows start).
Work 3 rows of st st, starting and ending with a purl row.
Next row: k3 m1 k2 m1 k3 m1 k2 m1 k3, 17 sts
Next row: purl
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005
Xtreme-Knitting!
Next row: k4 m1 k3 m1 k3 m1 k3 m1 k4, 21 sts
Next row: purl
Next row: k5 m1 k4 m1 k3 m1 k4 m1 k5, 25 sts
Work 3 rows
Bind off.
Legs (make 4)
As for BRONTY
Big Horns (make 2)
Cast on 10 sts
Bind off, leaving a tail for seaming.
Small Horn (make 1)
Cast on 6 sts
Bind off, leaving a tail for seaming.
FINISHING
Head, Body and Tail
Seam the piece together, stuffing as you go, up to the neck.
Using back stitch, fold the cast on edge in half and seam together.
Using oddment of black yarn/thread, embroider eyes by making a cross st.
Embroider a smile over the seam at the front of the head, using back stitch.
Finish seaming the piece together.
Legs
Sew down legs and then sew the tube you have just made onto the garter st square at the
bottom.
Stuff.
Sew onto the body by slip stitching all around the top of the tube onto knitted stitches on the
belly.
Frill
Slip stitch the Frill in place onto the body, 1cm away from the bound off edge.
Horns
Sew the 2 big horns in place on the forehead, and the small one on the nose.
For personal, non commercial use only!
Copyright Jennifer Thurston 2005

Adult Rolled Brimmed Hat

January 2, 2008

Adult Rolled Brim Hat – Knit Flat
by Lavendersheep
-CO 65-75 sts
-Row 1: K
-Row 2: P
*Repeat until piece measures 8″-9″*
-On knit side: K5, K2tog
-Purl side: P
-Repeat until there are 20 sts left
-Leave a long tail
-Sew tail back through the last sts on needle (This is easier with a needle)
-On WS sew sides tog to make hat, tie at the end.
-Turn inside right and hat is complete.
Variation:
-To make this in the round use circular needles and attach at the ends. K instead of K &
P, complete as instructed
-Ribbed hat: K3, P2 on RS and P3, K2 on WS
-Preemie Hats: CO 45-65 sts, K until measures 3.5-5.5 inches, then Decr
Quick Knitting Guide to Abbreviations
CO = Cast on
Decr = Decrease
Inc = Increase
K = Knit
K2tog = Knit two together
P = Purl
RS = Right Side
sts = Stitches
WS = Wrong Side
YO = Yarn Over

Knitting – Free Online Paper Graphs & Grids

January 2, 2008

the website with the self-referential tagline…

Free Online Graph Paper / Grid Paper PDFs
Downloadable and very printable, I find these PDFs extremely useful.

Square Graph Papers

Graph Paper
Graph Generator Lite – Specify the number of squares you want – and the size of them.

Plain Graph Paper PDF Generator – Set your border and grid spacing (i.e. 4 lines per cemtimemter) to get as much graph as possible on your paper.

Multi-Width
Multi Width Generator

For those who want extra border on the left side of the page, and only need 2 different lineweights, try this experimental PDF generator.

Dots
Like normal graph paper – but with dots instead of lines.

Cross Grid
Like normal graph paper – but with cross grids.

X and Y lines are configurable independently, so you can make tall or wide crosses.

Light Verticals
Lined Paper with Light Verticals PDF Generator – Horizontal lines with vertical lines being in a lighter color. The weights of both the lines can be adjusted.

Axonometric Perspective
Axonometric (bisected) diamond PDF Generator You can make them without the vertical bisector as well.

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Triangle / Rhombus / Hexagonal

Equilateral Triangle
Isometric Triangle PDF Generator

Octagonal
Octagon PDF Generator

Hexagonal
Hexagonal PDF Generator

Hex Dot
1/2″ between closest dots. Black
1/2″ between closest dots. Grey
1/4″ between closest dots. Black
1/4″ between closest dots. Grey
Centimeter diameter. (Tiny dots) Black
Centimeter diameter. (Tiny dots) Grey
Centimeter diameter. (Tiny dots) Graph Blue

Semi-bisected Trapezoid
Semi-Bisected Trapezoid PDF Generator

Every other trapezoid is bisected into triangles. This is used for sketching piping and wiring diagrams for factory machinery. If you want this in landscape format, simply set your page size to wider than it is tall (e.g. 11×8.5).

Iso-Dots
Like grid dots, but every other row is offset by half. These are not equalteral triangles.

Tumbling Block – Trapezoid
Tumbling Block PDF Generator

Diamond – Trapezoid
Diamond – Trapezoid PDF Generator

Equilateral Triangle Dots
Equilateral Triangle PDF Generator

Variable Triangle
Variable Triangle PDF Generator

——————————————————————————–

Circular

Circular – Hex Pattern
Circular Graph Paper Generator

——————————————————————————–

Asymmetric

Asymmetric
Asymmetric Graph Paper Generator

Asymmetric graph paper is typically used for knitting patterns. Knit stitches are taller than they are wide. You can set your own width to height ratio here to accomodate the type of stitch used.

Brick Layout
Brick Graph Paper Generator

Brick graph paper is typically used for beadwork patterns, but it has other applications as well. You can set your own width to height ratio. Useful for smocking designs.

Moorish Pattern
Variable-body Moorish tiling pattern.

“174 Paper”
“174 Paper”… used by the U.K. Government for… stuff, I guess.

“Engineer’s Paper”
“Engineer’s Paper”. This is a kind of notebook paper. The preview doesn’t do it justice.

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Specialty

Accounting – Ledger Paper
Accounting and Financial Ledger Paper PDFs – Multi-colored grouped financial data entry sheets.

Log/Semi-Log
Log Paper PDFs – The monster of log paper generators. Full log, or semi log on either axis. Up to 6 cycles per axis for printing very large format sheets.

Polar Graph Paper
Polar Graph Paper PDFs – Arbitrary circles and spokes. Labels in degrees and radians!

Storyboards
Variable aspect ratios, and optional description lines. If you need paper to plan out your broadcast or film production, this storyboard generator is probably a good idea.

Music Notation Staves
From one to 11 lines per staff (useful for percussion, bass or guitar tabs).

Guitar / Bass Fretboard Diagrams
Need diagrams for 6 strings? 4 strings? Seven? Twelve? This will make them all! (And it will make them in pretty colors!)

Number Line Paper
Numbers. On lines. Arbitrary start and end numbers. Integer or non-integer increments. (By non-integer, I still mean reals… things like 0.5 and 0.2 seem to be nice… incrementing by “0.82 + 62i” would be a problem.)

Celtic Knot / Celtic Knotwork Graph Paper
1″ major grid with minor lines at 1/8, 3/8, 5/8, and 7,8″.

Celtic graph pattern. Grey
Celtic graph pattern. Light Blue

Perspective
Single point perspective also known as vanishing point perspective. Defaults to landscape orientation.

——————————————————————————–

Writing / Penmanship / Note-Taking

Lined Paper
Lined Paper PDF Generator – Just horizontal lines.

Writing and Penmanship Paper
Solid top and bottom guides with a dashed line in the middle.

Double Lined Writing and Penmanship Paper
Two equally spaced guide lines, rather than one line in the middle.

Cornell Lined
Cornell Lined Note Taking System. One page divided into 3 sections, with a bunch of lines in one of them.

Cornell Graph
Cornell Graph Note Taking System. One page divided into 3 sections, with a grid in one of them.

Cornell Music
Standard Cornell Graph Paper layout with places to jot down your compositions and other musical notes.

Chinese Character Guide Paper – Hex Style
Practice grid for calligraphy or children’s writing.

Chinese Character Guide Paper – Hash Style
Chinese Character Guide Paper – X Style

Calligraphy Guideline Paper
Japanese/Chinese Character Guide Paper
Genkoyoushi (Japanese Character) Paper PDF Generator

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Need something else? Chances are someone else could use it too. Email me with the details of what you’d like! If I can do it – I’ll put it up here.

——————————————————————————–

Tip number one!
Though I do return the correct header for a PDF, sometimes Explorer gets confused when downloading… So if you’re running Windows, you may need to right-click a link and choose “Save link to disk”.

Tip number two!
Some people may need to turn off the option in Adobe’s Acrobat reader “shrink to fit” which may resize the grid slightly to fit your printer’s printable area.

Tip number three! (for hex and iso)
If you want the hexes aligned with the other edge of the paper, just make your paper size “11 x 8.5″ and print the result in landscape mode!

Other
Sudoku
1mm with 1cm bold. Has an overlay of 5mm grid offset 2.5mm from other grids. Blue
1/20″ with 1″ bold. 17×11 with extra margin on the left. Grey
Weight Lattice of sl(3). Black

This document is part of Incompetech.com. kevin@incompetech.com.
Also please visit my buddies at: Kelly Howlett Illustrations, Craig Abrams, and TubaPants!

Big chuncks of programming and a pile of behind-the-scenes things you can’t see were done by The ninjas at Seppuku.net

This site uses elements available from http://www.MouseRunner.com, cooltext.com, and a couple bits from the silver lexus theme.

Here’s some badges!

British Authors Bios, and The Movie Critic ©1996-2007 Laura MacLeod
Artist Bios ©1998-99 Steve Lange
Music, Photos, Renderings, Everything else ©1998-2007 Kevin MacLeod
Music
Royalty-Free Music Music FAQ Music Licenses
PDFs
Graph/Grid Paper Mailing Labels Monthly Calendars Yearly Calendars
Literature/Arts
British Authors Name Database Theater Scripts The Movie Critic Guide to Art
Other
Gallimaufry Send Email! Donate

FIESTA TEA SET

January 2, 2008

Finished Size Cup: 21⁄4″ (5.5 cm) high and 23⁄4″ (7 cm) diameter;
saucer: 43/4″ (12 cm) diameter; creamer: 2″ (5 cm) high and 31⁄2″
(9 cm) diameter; sugar bowl: 21⁄4″ (5.5 cm) high and 31⁄2″ (9 cm) diameter
with 31⁄2″ (9 cm) lid; pitcher: 3″ (7.5 cm) high and 31⁄2″
(9 cm) diameter with 31⁄2″ (9 cm) lid; placemat: 7″ (18 cm) wide and
5″ (12.5 cm) high.
Yarn Tahki Cotton Classic (100% mercerized cotton; 108 yd
[99 m]/50 g): #3871 blue, #3540 yellow, #3411 dark orange,
#3768 green, and #3402 light orange, 1 skein each.
Needles Size 2 (2.75 mm): set of 4 or 5 double pointed (dpn). Size 3
(3.25 mm): set of 4 or 5 dpn. Adjust needle size if necessary to obtain
the correct gauge.
Notions Tapestry needle.
Gauge 11 sts and 22 rows = 2″ (5 cm) in St st worked in the rnd on
size 3 (3.25-mm) needles; 24 sts and 28 rows = 4″ (10 cm) in St st
colorwork slipstitch patt on size 3 (3.25-mm) needles.
Stitch Guide
I-Cord BO: Using the cable method (see Glossary), CO 3 sts at
beg of row or rnd. *K2, ssk (last st of I-cord tog with 1 live st
from edge to be BO), return the 3 sts just worked back onto
left needle, pull yarn taut across back of work; rep from * until
all sts from edge have been BO—3 sts rem. Cont as directed
for your chosen piece.
I-Cord Horizontal Stripe: Using the cable method (see Glossary),
CO 3 sts at beg of RS row. Knit these 3 sts, then return them
to left needle. Next row: *K1f&b, k1, ssk (last st of I-cord
with next st from last rnd of base), return the last 3 sts worked
to left needle, pull yarn taut across back of work; rep from *
until all sts in rnd have been joined. Return last 3 sts from
right needle to left needle, k2tog, k1. Return last 2 sts from
right needle to left needle, k2tog—there should be 1 more st
than you started with. Cont in the rnd as directed, working
the first 2 sts as k2tog to return to the original number of sts.
Texture Stripe Pattern for Rim:
Rnd 1: Purl.
Rnds 2 and 3: Knit.
Rnd 4: Purl.
Rnds 5 and 6: Knit.
Rnds 7 and 9: Purl.
Rnds 8 and 10: Knit.
Note
Use the tail of yarn from the CO to mark beg of the rnd.
Circular Base
With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn, CO 1 st.
Row 1: [K1, p1, k1] all in same st—3 sts.
Rows 2 and 4: Purl.
Row 3: [K1f&b] in each st—6 sts.
Row 5: [K1f&b] in each st—12 sts. Divide sts onto 3 dpn so that
there are 4 sts on each dpn. Join for working in the rnd.
Rnd 6 & all even-numbered rnds: Knit.
Rnd 7: *K1f&b, k1; rep from *—18 sts; 6 sts on each dpn.
Rnd 9: *K1f&b, k1; rep from *—27 sts; 9 sts on each dpn.
Rnd 11: *K1f&b, k2; rep from *—36 sts; 12 sts on each dpn.
Rnd 13: *K1f&b, k3; rep from *—45 sts; 15 sts on each dpn.
Rnd 15: *K1f&b, k4; rep from *—54 sts; 18 sts on each dpn.
Cont as directed for your chosen piece.
Cup
(make 1 yellow and 1 light orange) With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn,
work through Rnd 13 of circular base—45 sts. Change to size 3
(3.25-mm) dpn. Purl 1 rnd for ridge to indicate transition from
bottom to sides of cup. Knit 12 rnds even, then work Rnds 1–10
of texture stripe patt for rim. Using the I-cord BO method (see
Stitch Guide), BO all sts. With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle,
sew CO and BO ends of I-cord tog. Weave in CO tail at base,
closing small opening at center. Handle:With size 2 (2.75-mm)
dpn and RS facing, pick up and knit 3 sts from side of cup centered
over the beg of the rnd and 5 rnds above purled transition ridge.
Work 3-st I-cord (see Glossary) for 17 rnds. With yarn threaded
on a tapestry needle, sew live sts of handle to 3 corresponding sts
in Rnd 8 of textured stripe patt. Weave in loose ends. Spritz with
water and place on a cup or glass of the correct size to block.
Saucer
(Make 1 yellow and 1 light orange.) With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn,
work through Rnd 15 of circular base—54 sts. Change to size 3
(3.25-mm) dpn. Purl 1 rnd. Inc Rnd 1: *K1f&b, k5; rep from *—
63 sts. Purl 1 rnd. Inc Rnd 2: *K1f&b, k6; rep from *—72 sts. Purl
1 rnd. Inc Rnd 3: *K1f&b, k7; rep from *—81 sts. Purl 1 rnd. Inc
Rnd 4: *K1f&b, k8; rep from *—90 sts. Knit 3 rnds, purl 1 rnd,
knit 1 rnd. Using the I-cord method (see Stitch Guide), BO all
sts. With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle, sew CO and BO
ends of I-cord tog. Weave in loose ends. Steam-press to block flat.
1 I Summer 2004 I INTERWEAVE KNITS I http://www.interweave.com
WHAT’S MORE ENCHANTING THAN A CHILD’S TEA PARTY? Inspired by the simple style of her Fiestaware dishes, Annie Modesitt designed
this colorful cup, saucer, creamer, sugar bowl, pitcher, and plaid placemat for a little princess of imagination. Except for the placemat, all
the pieces begin with the same circular base, so the set is a whole lot easier to knit than you might think.
d e s i g n b y A N N I E M O D E S I T T
FIESTA TEA SET
web KNITS
Interweave Press® Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
Summer 2004 I INTERWEAVE KNITS I 2
Creamer
With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn and dark orange, work through Rnd
15 of circular base—54 sts. Next rnd: Change to size 3 (3.25-mm)
dpn. Work I-cord horizontal stripe (see Stitch Guide) across all
sts. Knit 12 rnds. Spout:Work textured stripe patt with inserted
spout as foll:
Rnd 1: P27, yo, purl to end—55 sts.
Rnd 2: K26, p1, k1, p1, knit to end.
Rnd 3: K26, p1, M1R (see Glossary), sl 1 as if to purl with yarn
in back (pwise wyb), M1L (see Glossary), p1, knit to end—
57 sts.
Rnd 4: P27, k3, purl to end.
Rnd 5: K26, p1, M1R, k1, sl 1 pwise wyb, k1, M1L, p1, knit to
end—59 sts.
Rnd 6: K26, p1, k5, p1, knit to end.
Rnd 7: P27, M1R, k2, sl 1 pwise wyb, k2, M1L, purl to end—
61 sts.
Rnd 8: K26, p1, k7, p1, knit to end.
Rnd 9: P27, M1R, k3, sl 1 pwise wyb, k3, M1L, purl to end—
63 sts.
Rnd 10: K26, p1, k9, p1, knit to end.
Using the I-cord method (see Stitch Guide), BO all sts With
yarn threaded on a tapestry needle, sew CO and BO ends of Icord
tog. Weave in CO tail at base, closing small opening at center.
Handle: With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn, dark orange, and RS
facing, pick up and knit 3 sts from side of creamer centered over
beg of rnd, directly opposite the spout, and 7 rnds above I-cord
horizontal stripe. Work 3-st I-cord (see Glossary) for 17 rnds.
With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle, sew live sts of handle
to 3 corresponding sts in Rnd 8 of textured stripe patt. Weave in
loose ends. Spritz with water and place on cup or glass of the correct
size to block.
Sugar Bowl
With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn and blue, work through Rnd 15 of
circular base—54 sts. Next rnd: Change to size 3 (3.25-mm) dpn.
Work I-cord horizontal stripe (see Stitch Guide) across all sts.
Knit 12 rnds. Work Rnds 1–10 of texture stripe patt for rim. Using
the I-cord method (see Stitch Guide), BO all sts. With yarn
threaded on a tapestry needle, sew CO and BO ends of I-cord
tog. Weave in CO tail at base, closing small opening at center.
Handles:With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn, blue, and RS facing, pick
up and knit 3 sts from side of bowl centered over the beg of the
rnd and 7 rnds above I-cord horizontal stripe. Work 3-st I-cord
(see Glossary) for 17 rnds. With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle,
sew live sts of handle to 3 corresponding sts in Rnd 8 of textured
stripe patt. Work a second handle on the opposite side of
the bowl, directly opposite the first handle. Weave in loose ends.
Spritz with water and place on a cup or glass the correct size to
block. Lid: With size 3 (3.25-mm) dpn and blue, work through
Rnd 15 of circular base—54 sts. Purl 1 rnd. Next rnd: *K1f&b,
k5; rep from *—63 sts. Using the I-cord method (see Stitch
Guide), BO all sts. With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle, sew
CO and BO ends of I-cord tog. Weave in CO tail at base, closing
small opening in center. Lightly steam-press to block. Lid
handle: With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn, blue, RS facing, and beg 1
rnd out from center of lid, pick up and knit 3 sts. Work I-cord
for 17 rnds. With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle, sew live sts
of handle to 3 sts directly opposite these sts, 1 rnd out from center.
Weave in loose ends. Steam-press to block.
Pitcher
With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn and green, work through Rnd 15 of
circular base—54 sts. Next rnd: Change to size 3 (3.25-mm) dpn.
Work I-cord horizontal stripe (see Stitch Guide) across all sts.
Knit 24 rnds. Spout:Work 10 rnds for spout as for creamer. Using
the I-cord method (see Stitch Guide), BO all sts. With yarn
threaded on a tapestry needle, sew CO and BO ends of I-cord
tog. Weave in CO tail at base, closing small opening at center.
Handle:With size 2 (2.75-mm) dpn, green, and RS facing, pick
up and knit 4 sts from side of pitcher centered over the beg of
the rnd, directly opposite the spout, and 7 rnds above I-cord horizontal
stripe.
Row 1: *K1f&b; rep from *—8 sts.
Row 2: *K1, sl 1 pwise with yarn in front
(wyf); rep from *.
Rep Row 2 until handle measures about 31⁄2″
(9 cm) from pick-up row, ending having just
completed a row across the inside face of the
handle. Next row: With the outside of the
handle and RS of pitcher facing you, [k2tog]
4 times—4 sts rem. With yarn threaded on
a tapestry needle, sew live sts of handle to
4 corresponding sts in Rnd 8 of textured
stripe patt. Weave in loose ends. Spritz with
water and place on a cup or glass of the correct
size to block. Lid:With green, work as
for sugar bowl lid.
Placemat
With size 3 (3.25 mm) dpn, dark orange,
and using the Continental (long-tail)
method (see Glossary), CO 40 sts. Knit 1
row on WS. Establish vertical stripes as foll,
twisting yarns at color changes on subsequent rows to avoid leaving
holes: (RS) K8 dark orange, k4 green, k8 yellow, k8 light
orange, k4 green, k8 blue. Join another strand of dark orange as
contrast color (CC) with RS facing, and work slipstitch colorwork
patt as foll:
Row 1: (also RS) Slide sts to end of needle. With CC, *k1, sl 1
pwise wyb; rep from *.
Row 2: (WS) P8 blue, p4 green, p8 light orange, p8 yellow, p4
green, p8 dark orange.
Row 3: (also WS) Slide sts to end of needle. With CC, *p1, sl 1
pwise with yarn in front (wyf); rep from *.
Row 4: (RS) K8 dark orange, k4 green, k8 yellow, k8 light orange,
k4 green, k8 blue.
Rows 5–8: Rep Rows 1–4.
Rows 9–14: Change CC to green. Work Rows 1–4 once, then
work Rows 1 and 2 once more.
Rows 15–22: Change CC to yellow. Work Rows 3 and 4 once,
then work Rows 1–4 once, then work Rows 1 and 2 once.
Rows 23–30: Change CC to light orange. Work Rows 3 and 4
once, then work Rows 1–4 once, then work Rows 1 and 2
once. Cut yarns.
Slide sts to end of needle and join dark orange, ready to work a
RS row. Next row: Knit across all sts, then with another dpn and
RS facing, pick up and knit 29 sts along left edge of piece—69
sts. Turn work. With WS facing, k29 sts just picked up, k40 sts
along top of piece, then with another dpn, pick up and purl 29
sts along right edge of piece—98 sts. Turn work. With RS facing,
p29 sts just picked up, ending at upper right corner of work.
With another dpn, pick up but do not knit the CO loops of 39 sts
across bottom of piece—137 sts total, arranged on 4 dpn. Change
to yellow. Using the I-cord method (see Stitch Guide), BO all
sts. With yarn threaded on a tapestry needle, sew CO and BO
ends of I-cord tog at upper right corner. Weave in loose ends.
Steam-press to block. Y
ANNIE MODESITT lives in South Orange, New Jersey, where she enjoys
tea parties with her husband and two children. Visit her website at
http://www.modeknit.com.
3 I Summer 2004 I INTERWEAVE KNITS I http://www.interweave.com
RISK-FREE
TRIALOFFER
Discover knitwear designs that will capture your
imagination.
You don’t have to be a designer or a knitting pro to make
beautiful knitted garments and accessories, and you don’t
have to hunt all over for inspiring designs.
From cover to cover, Interweave Knits magazine gives you
great projects, from the beginner to the advanced. Every
issue is packed full of captivating smart designs, step-bystep
instructions, easy-to-understand illustrations, plus
well-written, lively articles sure to inspire.
Take advantage of this special risk-free offer today!
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baby socks better then booties

January 2, 2008

Not keen on baby booties? Try baby socks. Ann Budd has designed
five adorable pairs of tiny socks to make precious little feet even
more precious. All feature Priscilla Gibson-Roberts’s short-row
heel and toe (Fall 2000 Interweave Knits, page 76) and decorative
zigzag bind-off. Worked in washable wool, these socks are
easy to care for—an important feature in babywear. Instructions
for the Ruffle Rib, Braided Cable and Hugs and Kisses socks are
in the Summer 2005 issue of Interweave Knits. Instructions for
the Ruffle Rib (again), Chevron Lace, and Cable Rib socks are
given here.
Finished Size About 43⁄4″ (12 cm) foot circumference and 31⁄2″
(9 cm) long from back of heel to tip of toe.
Yarn Lorna’s Laces Shepherd Sock (80% superwash wool, 20%
nylon; 215 yd [196 m]/50 g): 1 skein will make 3 pairs of socks.
Shown in #21NS powder blue, # 44NS old rose, and #15NS chino.
Needles Size 0 (2 mm): set of 4 or 5 double-pointed (dpn). Adjust
needle size if necessary to obtain the correct gauge.
Notions Markers (m); cable needle (cn); tapestry needle.
Gauge 18 sts and 26 rnds = 2″ (5 cm) in St st worked in the rnd.
Stitch Guide
Ssp: Slip 2 sts individually kwise, return these 2 sts to left needle,
and purl them tog through their back loops.
Sssp: Slip 3 sts individually kwise, return these 3 sts to left needle,
and purl them tog through their back loops.
Ruffle Rib Socks
Leg: CO 88 sts. Distribute sts evenly on
3 or 4 dpn, place marker (pm), and join
for working in the rnd, being careful not
to twist sts. Work ruffle as foll:
Rnds 1, 2, and 3: *K2, p2; rep from *.
Rnd 4: *K2, p2tog; rep from *—66 sts rem.
Rnds 5 and 6: *K2, p1; rep from *.
Rnd 7: *K1, ssk; rep from *—44 sts rem.
Knit 1 rnd even. Eyelet rnd: *Yo, k2tog; rep from *. Next rnd:
*P1, k1; rep from *. Rep the last rnd 15 more times, ending 11
sts before end-of-rnd marker on last rnd. Heel: Arrange sts so
that the next 22 sts are on one needle for the heel, removing
marker as you go (working yarn is at the right edge of these sts)—
22 sts total for heel; divide rem 22 sts between 2 needles to be
worked later for instep. Work 22 heel sts in short rows as foll:
Row 1: (RS) K21, turn (1 st unworked on left needle).
Row 2: Yo backwards (see Toe and Heel Construction box on
page 2), p20, turn (1 st unworked).
Row 3: Yo as usual, knit to paired sts made by yo of previous row
(the yo will form a loop out of the side of the adjacent st),
leaving 3 sts on left needle (i.e., do not work the pair), turn.
Row 4: Yo backwards, purl to paired sts made by the yo of the
previous row, turn.
Rep the last 2 rows until there are 11 total sts between yos (9
unpaired sts between yos), ending with a WS row. Turn so RS is
facing. Form the heel cup as foll:
Row 1: (RS) Yo as usual, knit to the paired st made by yo of previous
row, k1, (the first st of the pair), correct the mount of
1 I Summer 2005 I INTERWEAVE KNITS I http://www.interweave.com
BETTER-THAN-BOOTIES BABY SOCKS
webKNITS
All photos Joe Coca
CHEVRON LACE
BRAIDED CABLE
HUGS & KISSES
RUFFLE RIBS
CABLE RIB
Ann Budd
Copyright Interweave Press® Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
Summer 2005 I INTERWEAVE KNITS I 2
the yo (so that the leading edge is on the front of the needle),
k2tog (the yo with the first st of the next pair, leaving a yo as
the first st on the left needle), turn.
Row 2: (WS) Yo backwards, purl to paired st made by yo of previous
row, purl the first st of the pair, ssp (the yo with the first
st of the next pair, leaving a yo as the first st on the left needle;
see Stitch Guide), turn.
Row 3: Yo, knit to the paired st made by yo of previous row, knit
the first st of the pair (the next 2 loops will be yos), correct
the mount of each of these yos, k3tog (2 yos with the first st
of the next pair), turn.
Row 4: Yo backwards, purl to next yo (the next 2 loops are yos), sssp
(2 yos with the first st of the next pair; see Stitch Guide), turn.
Row 5: Yo, knit to next yo (the next 2 loops will be yos), correct
the mount of each of these yos, k3tog (2 yos with the first st
of the next pair), turn.
Rep the last 2 rows until all yos of heel have been consumed,
ending with Row 4. The last turn will bring RS facing—22 sts +
1 yo. Joining rnd:Yo, knit to yo at end of needle, place this yo
on next needle (first instep needle), k2tog (the yo plus first st of
next needle), work to last instep st, place yo at beg of next (heel)
needle onto instep needle and work these 2 sts as ssk (last st of
rnd plus yo)—44 sts. Rnd begins at beg of sole sts.
Foot:Work even in St st for 16 rnds.
Toe: Rearrange sts if necessary so that 22 bottom-of-foot (sole)
sts are on one dpn. Work toe with short-rows as for heel. After
making the last turn, the toe is joined to the top of the foot with
a zigzag bind-off: Place 22 instep sts on 1 dpn and 22 sole sts on
another dpn. Holding the 2 needles tog, sl 1 from front needle,
p1 from back needle, pass slipped st over purled st, *k1 from front
needle, pass purl st over, p1 from back needle, pass knit st over;
rep from * until 1 st rem on needle, working last st tog with its
accompanying yo. Fasten off.
Finishing
Weave in loose ends. Block lightly if desired.
Chevron Lace Socks
Leg: CO 44 sts. Distribute sts evenly on
3 or 4 dpn, place marker (pm), and join
for working in the rnd, being careful not
to twist sts. Knit 6 rnds for facing. Picot
turning rnd: *Yo, k2tog; rep from *. Knit
5 rnds. Joining rnd: Join CO edge to next
rnd of knitting as foll: Turn facing to inside along turning rnd,
pick up edge of first CO st, and knit this loop tog with the first
st on needle. Cont around in this manner, working the edge of
the corresponding CO st tog with the st on the needle. Knit 1
rnd even. Set-up patt: K6, work Rnd 1 of Chevron Lace chart
over 9 sts, k13, work Rnd 1 of Chevron Lace chart over 9 sts, k7.
Cont as established, working 13 sts in St st between each lace
panel, until Rnds 1–6 have been worked a total of 4 times (24
rnds total), ending with Rnd 6. Heel:Work as for Ruffle Rib socks,
ending by knitting 1 rnd across all sts. Foot: K17, work Rnd 1 of
Chevron Lace chart over 9 sts, k18. Cont as established, working
center 9 instep sts in lace patt for a total of 4 reps (24 rnds), ending
with Rnd 6 of patt. Toe:Work as for Ruffle Rib socks.
Cable Rib Socks
Leg: CO 44 sts. Distribute sts evenly on
3 or 4 dpn, place marker (pm), and join
for working in the rnd, being careful not
to twist sts. Beg with Rnd 1, work all sts
according to Cable Rib chart until a total
of 24 rnds have been worked. Heel:
Working 22 heel sts in St st, work short-row heel as for Ruffle
Rib socks. Foot: Cont working one cable patt along each side of
foot as foll: K11, p1, work 2 sts in cable patt as established, p1,
k16, p1, work 2 sts in cable patt as established, p1 knit to end.
Cont in this manner until Rnds 1–4 of chart have been worked
4 times (16 rnds). Toe:Work as for Ruffle Rib socks.
1/1 RC: k2tog, then knit first st again,
then slip both sts off needle
k on RS; p on WS
p on RS; k on WS
yo
k2tog
ssk
Cable Rib
3
1
Chevron Lace
5
3
1
Toe and Heel Construction
The toe and heel are constructed with short rows that
produce an hourglass shape. Each short row begins with
a yarnover that is instrumental in preventing gaps.
When the knit side is facing, work the yarnover in the
usual manner, bringing yarn forward under needle then
over the top to the back. When the purl side is facing,
bring yarn to the back
under needle, then over
the top to the front as
illustrated here. This
forms a “backward”
yarnover—the leading
side of the loop
is on the back of the
needle.
ANN BUDD has been involved with Interweave Knits since its
inception in 1996.
RISK-FREE
TRIALOFFER
Discover knitwear designs that will capture your
imagination.
You don’t have to be a designer or a knitting pro to make
beautiful knitted garments and accessories, and you don’t
have to hunt all over for inspiring designs.
From cover to cover, Interweave Knits magazine gives you
great projects, from the beginner to the advanced. Every
issue is packed full of captivating smart designs, step-bystep
instructions, easy-to-understand illustrations, plus
well-written, lively articles sure to inspire.
Take advantage of this special risk-free offer today!
http://www.interweave.com/go/knitsJPDC6

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January 2, 2008

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